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For Black America-  

We Are “Still A Nation at Risk”

The National Black Education Agenda Responds to COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

advocated by The Council of State School Officers and the National Governors Association

 

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Historical Overview

In 1983, The Federal Government under President Ronald Reagan issued an educational document titled “A Nation at Risk”.

In military language the document declared: “If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre education performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war”.

In its analysis and recommendations “A Nation at Risk” gave no attention to the issues of either large urban cities or of the nation’s Black students.

In response to this neglect not only by “A Nation at Risk” but also by the many education reform documents of the 1980s, The National Alliance of Black School Educators commissioned a group of distinguished Black educators to write a document based on the inseparable linkage of academic and cultural excellence for students of African descent.  NABSE issued its report, “Saving the African American Child,” co-authored by Dr. Asa G. Hilliard III and Dr. Barbara A. Sizemore and distributed nationwide in 1984.

Unbelievable to some, ”Saving the African American Child” called for even higher standards for children and youth of African descent than “A Nation at Risk” or any other educational reform document of the 1980s demanded for all American students. For example, the NABSE document insisted that:                             

African American students should master algebra by the sixth grade and calculus by the twelfth grade.

“Saving the African American Child” echoed the central thesis of Dr. Carter G. Woodson’s classic book, The Mis-education of the Negro, (1933): education in America was conceived to control the minds and labors of Black Americans.

Dr. Woodson, Ph.D., Harvard, the father of “Negro History” in America, contended that education in the United States was intended purposefully to make people of African descent feel inferior and people of European decent believe in their superiority. That purpose was then and is now still manifested in curriculum, in instruction, in books, newspapers, broadcasting and films and, most importantly, in public philosophy and public policy.  

Accordingly, “Saving the African American Child” made explicit that the process of educating African American students requires pedagogy and curriculum whose objective is the combination of academic and cultural excellence. The essential cultural excellence dimension is to correct and reverse the emotional, historical and cultural damage of white supremacist distortions and untruths about students’ African origins, the enslavement of their ancestors, and to renew their self-esteem; to help students of African ancestry understand the deliberately omitted history of the African origins of civilization and the origins of scholarship in almost all the academic subjects studied at the present.    

But neither most African American educators nor educators of European, Hispanic/Latino, Native American or Asian ancestry gave much attention to the imperative of the mind freeing cultural necessity for students of African descent.

For example, the African American superintendent of the Nashville Public Schools, at the time of the publication of the NABSE document, and later Mayor of Nashville, stated in the Nashville Tennessean that he knew of no relationship between the study of Black history and mathematics and science.

Clearly his own education failed to teach him that the origins of mathematics and science were in Africa, that the first humans were Africans.

Another example of an African American educator with little knowledge of his history and no respect for the work of the African American scholars who wrote “Saving the African American Child”, was the superintendent of the Detroit Public Schools who hosted a major foundation supported conference in Miami at which educators from around the US convened to discuss the implications of the reform documents of the 1980s.

Copies of almost all of the reform documents had been distributed and were on display. Absent was the major reform document of the National Alliance of Black School Educators, in which both of the superintendents cited above held long time organizational memberships. A copy was also presented to the then chancellor of the New York City Public Schools, a man of Hispanic/Latino heritage. He never responded privately or publicly. A copy was also presented in person to the present president of the New York City Public Library, who also never responded.

The distinguished educator, the late Dr. Barbara A. Sizemore, first African American woman to head a major school district, Washington, D.C., and co-author of the NABSE report, once wrote an essay entitled “Hardly Anybody Wants Something All-Black to be Excellent”.  Her thesis was supported by the failure of African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, Native American or European American educators to give any credence to the reform document which advocated and expected higher standards for Black students than any other reform document of the 1980s.

The Present Crisis

Now twenty-seven years after the publication and public discourse over a “A Nation at Risk”, America is “Still a Nation at Risk”. Dropouts among students of African descent and other students of color are epidemic. For example, the August 2010 Educational Testing Service’s Report: The Black-White Achievement Gap: When Progress Stopped and the Schott Foundation Report, “Given Half A Chance: the 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males”, 2008, which documents the tragedy of Black male graduation rates. Among the lowest performing large school districts in America, the high school completion rate for Black males is 20% in Detroit, 31% in Baltimore and Buffalo and 32% in New York City and Milwaukee. Or stated another way, the dropout rate for Black male high school students is 80% in Detroit, 69% in Baltimore and Buffalo and 68% in New York City and Milwaukee.

It is likely that the dropout rates are even higher, due to fudging of data.

The report "Dropping out of School in New York State: the Invisible People of Color" by the Task Force on the New York State Dropout Problem, cites a New York City Board of Education study which found that in-school experiences are a principal reason students drop out of school. The study, "Interrupted Education, Students Who Drop Out", reported that for students who leave school there were five major school-related reasons:
1. Personal, cultural and linguistic humiliation.
2. Academic humiliation.
3. Institutional discharge based on the school's decision to dismiss.
4. Discriminatory high school admissions and dismissal policies and rules.
5. Lack of appropriate instruction for language minority students.


Other reasons cited were family conditions and work/economic factors. It will be noted, however, that all of the in-school reasons for dropping out are directly related to factors that are adult controlled, including particularly how students perceive they are being judged by adults.

Students have keen perceptors, which help them to discern when they are judged capable of excellent achievement, as worthy, valued human beings.

A play by Leroi Jones (now known as Amiri Baraka), “The Toilet,” describes an urban school where bored and disrespected African American males hang out in the toilet, instead of going to class, to escape dull classrooms and teachers who denied their humanity. “The Toilet” was, for many, the last stop before dropping out.

No manner of Common Core State Standards will educationally serve Black males or, for that matter, Black females who do not feel respected by their teachers.

Closely related to school dropouts is the inordinate percentage of incarcerations. The United States imprisons more Americans than any other nation in the world. The majority of imprisoned African Americans are school dropouts. Many African males are imprisoned for drug offenses for which white males are not sentenced. Consequently, incarceration in most states denies ex-convicts the right to vote, the ability to find employment and systemically makes it nearly impossible for them to return to school. 

Michelle Alexander in her new book The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, theorizes that the high incarceration rate of African Americans is a deliberate return to the period following the emancipation of enslaved Africans in which the nation established new laws and found new ways to control the minds and economics of newly freed Black People. That study after study, many of them U.S. Department of Justice studies, document the equal or greater use of illegal drugs by whites, further cements the intentionality of the vicious targeting of African American, Latinos and Indigenous Peoples by local, state and federal criminal justice authorities.

Ira Katznelson’s When Affirmative Action Was White: an Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America and Douglas Blackmon’s Slavery by Another Name further document this continuum, in which, well into the 1960s, the U.S. norm was systematic, government-instituted exclusion of African Americans from the Social Security system, barring of African Americans from accessing middle-class (status) in the FHA mortgage, GI Bill higher education programs, the “forcing... thousands of people to live in a state of involuntary servitude -- well into the lives of millions of Americans who are still alive today.” 

Principal Criticisms of the Common Core State Standards: On the Road to Educational Genocide

Neither the assumptions of “A Nation at Risk” nor the soon to be implemented “Common Standards,” both of which assume an American student population embodied with a similar history of freedom and cultural neutrality, is sufficient to educate students of African descent whose ancestors in the United States bore the scars of physical and mental chains of enslavement and who themselves, whether they recognize it or not, are still victimized by a white supremacist culture and school curriculum. No other race came to America in chains to be suppressed and vilified by Americans of European descent who are presently accorded unearned special privileges because of their skin color and heritage.

Although the new standards claim that no specific curriculum materials are being advocated, in several areas that specify common standards in English Language Arts, and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Mathematics, Science, and Technical Subjects, grades kindergarten through the 12th grade and college, the “sample” of illustrative texts rarely contains any books or writings by Black authors, and, for that matter, of any writings by Hispanic/Latino, Native American or Asian writers!  The “illustrative” texts for student reading in grades K-5 contain no readings identifiable as written by or about authors of color.

Yet, as the Common Core State Standards make clear these are only recommendations, not required readings. States are free to choose their own texts and materials. The State of Texas, for example, has already decided to remove such illustrious Americans as President Thomas Jefferson and Justice Thurgood Marshall from its textbooks and curriculum.

The frequent suggestion in ‘The Standards’ that students be paired for diversity is an implementation deception in schools that are primarily or all of one racial group or where some students are separated into elite “gifted” or “advanced placement” groupings.

"The Standards Movement: Quality Control Or Decoy?"

The assumptions of both “A Nation at Risk” and the soon to be implemented “Common Standards” ignore the history of and ongoing reality of structural racism and white supremacist culture in school curricula and educational practices.

More than a decade ago in a speech at Howard University entitled, “The Standards Movement: Quality Control or Decoy?” the distinguished psychologist and educator, Dr. Asa G. Hilliard III, reminded us that the many standards movements in American education are but decoys rather than attempts to reform education to serve all students:

“I believe the standards movement is generally a decoy. I don’t care whether it’s a Democrat or Republican who calls for it. When people put so much emphasis on standards as a school reform tool, it means that they want to act like they’re performing a reform effort, but they’re actually moonwalking. They look like they’re going forward but they’re going backwards.”

No Emphasis on Education for Cultural Democracy

A principal criticism of the Common Core Standards is that there are no recommendations for honest readings and discussions to prepare all students of whatever ethnicity or gender to live in a cultural democracy, that is, to become divested of cultural, racial, gender or sexual biases. Without honest discussion and understanding of white supremacy racism and cultural domination, the citizens of the United States and immigrants present and future will remain unwitting instruments of an unjust and still unrealized democracy.

Although the new standards claim that no specific curriculum materials are being advocated, in several areas that specify common standards in English Language Arts, and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Mathematics, Science, and Technical Subjects, grades kindergarten through the 12th grade and college, the “sample” of illustrative texts rarely contains any books or writings by Black, Hispanic/Latino, Native American or Asian authors!  The “illustrative” texts for student reading in grades K-5 contain no readings identifiable as written by or about authors of color.

Illustrative readings, grades 6-12, recommend 6 of 32 works of Black writers: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Zora Neal Hurston, Lorraine Hansberry, and Richard Wright. However, if teachers are not prepared culturally and emotionally to help students discover the central theme of all of these writers - - truth and justice in an anti-racist society - - then the readings of even these giants of African heritage will be of little value.

These proposed standards ignore the reality that the majority of African American and Latino/a students attend schools in which they are the overwhelming majority and white (and Asian) students are the “tracked” into gifted and Advanced Placement classes. Therefore, although the proposed standards frequently suggest that students be paired for diversity, how can that suggestion be implemented in schools that are primarily or all of one racial group or where some students are separated into elite “gifted” or “advanced placement” groupings?

Disconnected from the Reality of Racialized Joblessness and Mass Incarceration

A second criticism is that the Common Core Standards approach to educational reform also ignores the reality that massive joblessness has rendered education all but irrelevant. What is needed is a comprehensive approach to education and opportunities for meaningful work that will interrupt the current cradle-to-prison pipeline and give our children a real hope for a future.

The Repetition of Failed Math and Science Education Approach Continues

A third principal criticism of the proposed Common Core Standards is that we find, once again, the inane repeating of a failed math and science education approach that relies heavily on rote memorization for high stakes tests, rather than inquiry based learning in math, science, and technology. This is coupled with inadequately educated math and science teachers who have to rely on the textbook industry to tell them what and how to teach.

Moreover, mathematics-- and to some extent, the sciences –are the only subjects taught from an ahistorical perspective - - allowing for the total erasure of the roots of math and science. Continuing to omit the historical foundations of math and science in Africa, Asia, and the Americas does not permit Black students, for example, to see themselves in mathematics, the sciences and engineering.  This erasure helps to re-enforce the myth of white and Asian mental superiority when it comes to understanding and “doing” math and science.

However, pioneer Black math educators such as Bob Moses and his Algebra Project, Dr. Abdulalim Shabazz, Dr. Everard Barrett and others have established tried and true pedagogy that enable Black students to excel in mathematics (and subsequently, the sciences). As the NABSE document points out, Black educators have demonstrated the effectiveness of teaching and mastery of Basic Algebra BEFORE a student enters high school so that students can complete at least one year of Calculus before high school graduation.  However, the “Common Core Standards” proponents have deliberately ignored such successes.

We need to recognize that when it comes to scientific and technological knowledge our Black children are now stuck in the late 19th Century! Our youth are immersed in all kinds of electronic gadgets, but primarily as consumers with little or, no idea about how these technological wonders work!

We see this reality ultimately as part of the general ongoing process of “Educational Genocide”: the deliberate dumbing down of a people while erasing or distorting their history to the benefit of others.

“A Nation at Risk,” “No Child Left Behind,” “Race to the Top,” or “Common Core State Standards” have not and cannot provide the basis for a truthful curriculum and educational excellence for American children and youth who are comfortable with themselves, their own personal histories and culture, who are confident and capable of working well with other Americans like and unlike themselves toward a more perfect union. 

Neither “A Nation at Risk” nor “Common Core State Standards” considers the lasting and undermining effects in the educational system of the unique circumstances under which Africans were kidnapped and brought to the shores of the Americas, Australia and to Europe. Neither document suggests any real educational remedy to address history’s greatest crime against humanity.

Without a truthful history of its founding, how this nation acquired its wealth on the backs of enslaved Africans, and the continued denial of the cultural resources African people possess to participate in building a real democracy, the United States will continue to remain a segmented nation, a nation which will soon find white Americans the new minority and still in control.

We are “Still A Nation at Risk.”


NBEA Recommendations

We Need to Take an Effective, Human Rights Road to Education Reform

A National Black Education Summit

A National Black Education Summit should be held to comprehensively document the successful education experiences and student, family and community outcomes and impacts over the past half century. Hundreds of African American-initiated education programs and thousands of educators have successfully educated and nurtured tens of thousands of whole human beings by implementing the 'Saving the African American Child" effort and other related recommendations. This is particularly true for scores of African-Centered Education programs that have been established over the past 40 years.

Schools
1. We recommend the cessation of the creation of charter schools. Recent research verifies that charter schools, in spite of significant financial support and the freedom of curricular and instructional innovations, do not result in achievement of students any greater than regular schools. The Federal requirement of removal of the cap on charter schools should be discontinued as a prerequisite for government education grants. The Department of Education should stop promoting the now discredited Promise Academy of the Harlem Children's Zone as the model for reform for underachieving American schools.

Those charters that already exist be partnered with local non-charter schools and critiqued as to whether or not their education attributes are worth continuing and replicating. If not, these charters should be closed or phased back into the public school system without their charter status.

2. Public schools must be reformed to serve all children, not a select group in charter or "elite" schools. Administrators and teachers in schools that are all or predominantly African American and other students of color must be required to study the history and cultures of those students. This should be institutionalized by having Black History and Multicultural History as basic high school graduation requirements.

3. Teacher training programs, whether at colleges and universities or programs such as Teach for America, must include the history and cultures of students of African descent among their required courses. Teacher and administrator certification must require completion of such courses with at least a grade of "B".

4. State certification must also require that teachers and administrators give evidence of having taken required courses in the history and cultures of students of African descent.

5. There should be established as a national standard teacher mentorship programs modeled after the successful mentorship program currently functioning in Massachusetts. Teach for America type programs need to be especially connected to this kind of mentorship program.

6. Curriculum in grades 6-12 must be revised, including textbooks and materials, to help all students, of whatever heritage, to learn the truth about the origins of humanity and scholarship in Africa. Truthful curriculum must be manifested in English, literature, social studies, mathematics and sciences. In the case of African American students, special efforts should be made to incorporate contemporary cultural interests of the students as inducements to stimulate reading, writing, oral communication and critical thinking. Sports, music, videos, television programs, films, art, celebrities are among the many cultural factors that can bring joy to the learning process.

Responsibility for students' achievement lies within the schools, not with parents. The Federal government, public education officials and critics must stop blaming parents and communities for the low achievement of students of African descent and other students of color whose achievement is not on grade level.

Parents, many who are young and have not been provided an excellent educational experience, and most of whom have to struggle to pay rent and buy food for their children, do not bear primary responsibility for the formal education of their children. That is not to say that schools should not make efforts to bring parents into the educational process, or that parents who read to their children or take them to important educational sites such as museums or libraries are not assets to the schools and the children.

But where that is not possible, educators must not blame parents and the environment for poor test scores and low student achievement. Schools, administrators and faculty are accountable. Do not blame the children and do not blame their parents or community.

In fact, the public school systems must allow for parents to further their own education via adult education courses and free attendance to community colleges and public universities as part of their contribution to their child's educational development.

Most important, do not blame race or class for school failure.
 

Testing and Other Forms of Assessments

Assessing student progress solely by means of standardized tests is unreliable:
Frequently there is a disconnect between what has been taught and standardized testing. Students should not be expected to answer questions about materials they have not been taught.
 
2. The Harvard psychologist Dr. Howard Gardner has researched and written that intelligence is determined in many ways other than answering questions about information presumed to have been taught.

Gardner posits "human beings are better thought of as possessing a number of independent faculties rather than as having a certain amount of intellectual power or IQ." He suggests that there are multiple indices for determining intelligence. Gardner lists seven such indices:

1. Linguistic

2. Logical – mathematical

3. Spatial

4. Bodily

5. Kinesthetic

6. Interpersonal

7. Intrapersonal

Student achievement should not be judged by tests alone, whether standardized or teacher created, but by many factors and indices such as those articulated by Gardner.

The use of the portfolio method of assessment has been proven to be effective in revealing not only the intellectual development of the student, but also the quality and depth of teaching students are receiving.

 

Successful schools

While there is not a single school district in the United States that can be said to have been successful in educating students of African descent, there are a number of individual schools that have been highly successful in the past and in the present in providing an education of academic and cultural excellence for students of African descent. Exemplar schools in the recent past include the Robert L. Vann Elementary School, Pittsburgh, which for a decade was at the top or near the top in citywide public school achievements, the Charles Rice Learning Center in Dallas and, for example, the present day Promise Learning Center and Sunnyside High School in Los Angeles, CA, the J.S. Chick Elementary School in Kansas City, Mo.

 

Those who know

There are extraordinary educators of African ancestry, some still living, who have had great success in educating African American children and youth. These educators such as Dr. Adelaide L. Sanford, Vice Chancellor (Emerita), the New York State Board of Regents, and among several mathematics educators such as Dr. Abdulalim Shabazz, Dr. Everard Barrett and Bob Moses have had notable achievement in educating African American students. They should be among the first and most experienced educators consulted. The works of the late Drs. Asa G. Hilliard III and Barbara A. Sizemore should be standards for improving African American education.  

 

We hope you can join us by signing on and engaging in the Black Education work ahead.

 

Donald H. Smith, Ph.D.

Former Chair, The New York City Board of Education's Commission on Students of African Descent

Past President, the National Alliance of Black School Educators

 

Sam Anderson

Retired Professor of Mathematics & Black History

Author of The Black Holocaust for Beginners

Co-Chair National Black Education Agenda

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 References

1. Carter G. Woodson "The Mis-education of the Negro," (1933).

2. "Dropping Out of School in New York State: the Invisible People of Color", the Task Force on the New York State Dropout Problem, (1987).
3. " A Nation at Risk" the US Department of Education, (1983).
4. "Saving the African American Child," the Task Force on Black Academic and Cultural Excellence, The National Alliance of Black School Educators. (1984).
5. "The Standards Movement: Quality Control or Decoy?" by Asa Hilliard. 1998. http://blackeducationnow.org/id17.html
6. "The Schott Foundation "Given Half A Chance, the 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males", (2008).
7. Linda Darling-Hammond, The Flat World and Education: How America's Commitment to Equity Will Determine Our Future, Teachers College Press, New York, (2009).
8. Tyrone C. Howard, "Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools," Teachers College Press, New York, (2010).
9. Douglas A. Blackmon, Slavery by Another Name – The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II. Doubleday, New York, (2008).
10. Michelle Alexander, "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness", The New Press, New York, (2010).
11. Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. W.W. Norton, New York and London. 2005
12. "The State of State Standards--and the Common Core--in 2010" by Sheila Byrd Carmichael, Gabrielle Martino, Kathleen Porter-Magee, W. Stephen Wilson: http://tinyurl.com/2bkzsw3
13. "The Black-White Achievement Gap: When Progress Stopped"; Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. August 2010.
14. Na'Ilah Suad Nasir and Paul Cobb, Improving Access to Mathematics: Diversity and Equity in the Classroom, Teachers College Press, New York, (2009).
15. The Algebra Project: www.algebra.org
16. Dr. Ron Eglash /African fractals/origin of computer www.ted.com/talks/ron_eglash_on_african_fractals.html
17. Dr. Ron Eglash: www.youtube.com/watch?v=7n36qV4Lk94
18. Ethiopia/Ancient binary number system: http://tinyurl.com/23deucg
19. Dr. Gloria Emeagwali / Indigenous knowledge systems http://www.africahistory.net/AIK.htm
20. Comprehensive web links: http://www.africahistory.net
21. Paulus Gerdes, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Eduardo-Mondlane University, CP 257, Maputo, Mozambique On possible uses of traditional Angolan sand drawings in the mathematics classroom, Educational Studies in Mathematics, 19, (1), Feb, 1988, 3-22.
22. K. Horsthemke (2008). The idea of indigenous knowledge, Archaeologies, 4(1), 129-143. Towards a new paradigm for pan-African knowledge production and application in the context of the African renaissance
23. Shadrack B. O. Gutto International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, 1753-7274, Volume 1, Issue 2, 2006, Pages 306 – 323
24. informaworld
25. Okhee Lee and Cory A. Buxton, Diversity and Equity in Science Education: Research, Policy, and Practice, Teachers College Press, New York, (2010).
26. Kristen L. Buras et al, Pedagogy, Policy, and the Privatized City, Teachers College Press, New York, (2010).
27. Geneva Gay, Culturally Responsive Teaching Theory, Research, and Practice, Teachers College Press, New York, (2010).
28. Sonia Nieto, The Light in their Eyes: Creating Multicultural Learning Communities, Teachers College Press, New York, (2010).
29. Gloria Ladson-Billings, Beyond the Big House, African American Educators on Teacher Education, Teachers College Press, New York, (2008).
30. Mary Dilg, Race and Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Learning Through Multicultural Education, Teachers College Press, New York, (2008).


 

AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY: BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

General:

Darlene Clark Hine, The African American Odyssey (2006)

Robin D. G. Kelly and Earl Lewis, eds., To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans (2000)

John Hope Franklin and Alfred A. Moss, Jr., From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans (1997)

Mary F. Berry and John W. Blassingame, Long Memory: The Black Experience in America (1982)

Vincent Harding, There Is A River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America (1981)

Lawrence Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (1977)

Pauli Murray, States’ Laws on Race and Color (1950)

Vincent Franklin, Black Self-Determination: A Cultural History of the Faith of the Fathers (1984)

August Meier, Elliott Rudwick, and Francis L. Broderick, eds., Black Protest Thought in the Twentieth Century, (1971)

Charles M. Payne and Adam Green, Time Longer Than Rope: A Century of African American Activism, 1850-1950 (2003)

Thomas R. Frazier, Afro‑American History: Primary Sources, (1988)

Joanne Grant, Black Protest: History, Documents, and Analyses, 1619 to the Present, (1969)

Herbert Hill and James E. Jones, eds., Race in America: The Struggle for Equality (1993)

Russell C. Brignano, ed., Black Americans in Autobiography: An Annotated Bibliography of Autobiographies and Autobiographical Books Written Since the Civil War (1984)

Richard Bardolph, ed., The Civil Rights Record: Black Americans and the Law, 1849-1970 (1970)

Herbert Aptheker, ed., A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States, 1910-1932 (1973)

Howard University Library, Moorland Foundation, Dictionary Catalog of the Jesse E. Moorland Collection of Negro Life and History (12 vols.) (1976)

New York Public Library, Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature and History, Dictionary Catalogue of the Schomburg Collection (15 vols.) (1977)

Darlene Clark Hine, ed, The State of Afro-American History: Past, Present and Future (1986)

Mia Bay, The White Image in the Black Mind: African American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925 (2000)

Adam Fairclough, Better Day Coming: Blacks and Equality, 1890-2000 (2001)

Philip A. Klinkner with Rogers M. Smith, The Unsteady March: The Rise and Decline of Racial Equality in America (1999)

David McBride, From TB to AIDS: Epidemics Among Urban Blacks Since 1900 (1992)

Cathy J. Cohen, The Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics (1999)

 

Black Thought in the Age of Booker T. Washington:

William Hannibal Thomas, The American Negro: What He Was, What He Is, and What He May Become (1901)

Peter Gilbert, ed., The Selected Writings of John Edward Bruce: Militant Black Journalist (1971)

Charles A. Lofgren, The Plessey Case: A Legal-Historical Interpretation (1987)

Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington, Volume I: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1901 (1972)

_____________, Booker T. Washington, Volume II: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915 (1983)

_____________, et. al. eds., The Booker T. Washington Papers (14 vols.) (1972-1989)

Tunde Adeleke, ed., Booker T. Washington: Interpretative Essays (1998)

Manning Marable, W.E.B. DuBois: Black Radical Democrat (1986)

David Levering Lewis, W.E.B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919 (1993)

__________________, W.E.B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919-1963 (2000)

Edwin S. Redkey, ed, Respect Black: The Writings and Speeches of Henry McNeal Turner (1971)

Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery: An Autobiography (1900)

W.E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk (1903)

____________, The Autobiography of W.E.B. DuBois: A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the Last Decade of its First Century (1975)

Shamoon Zamir, Dark Voices: W.E.B. DuBois & American Thought, 1888-1903 (1995)

Michael B. Katz and Thomas J. Sugrue, eds., W.E.B. DuBois, Race, and the City: The Philadelphia Negro and Its Legacy (1998)

August Meier, Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915: Racial Ideologies in the Age of Booker T. Washington (1969)

Mildred I. Thompson, Ida B. Wells-Barnett: An Exploratory Study of an American Black Woman, 1893-1930 (1990)

Miriam DeCosta-Wills, The Memphis Diary of Ida B. Wells: An Intimate Portrait of the Activist as a Young Woman (1994)

William Toll, The Resurgence of Race: Black Social Theory from Reconstruction to the Pan-African Conferences (1979)

Howard Brotz, ed., Negro Social and Political Thought, 1850-1920: Representative Texts (1966)

Ida B. Wells, Crusader for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells (1970)

John H. Bracey, Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick, ed., Black Nationalism in America (1970)

Stephen R. Fox, The Guardian of Boston: William Monroe Trotter (1970)

D. Joy Humes, Oswald Garrison Villard: Liberal of the 1920s (1977)

American Negro Academy, The Negro and the Elective Franchise (1905)

August Meier, Elliott Rudwick and Francis L. Broderick, eds., Black Protest Thought in the Twentieth Century (1971)

William Ivy Hair, Carnival of Fury: Robert Charles and the New Orleans Race Riot of 1900 (1963)

Cary D. Wintz, ed., African American Political Thought, 1890-1930 (1996)

Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (1997)

Kevin K. Gaines, Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century (1997)

Peter Daniel, The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South (1972)

Donald G. Nieman, ed., African Americans and the Emergence of Segregation, 1865-1900 (1994)

Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (1998)

Neil R. McMillen, Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow (1989)

W. Fitzhugh Brundage, ed., Under Sentence of Death: Lynching in the South (1997)

Leon Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (1998)

Jerrold M. Packard, American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow (2003)

Rayvon Fouche, Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation: Granville T. Woods, Lewis H. Latimer and Shelby J. Davidson (2003)

Sister Mary Bernard Deggs, No Cross, No Crown: Black Nuns in Nineteenth Century New Orleans (2001)

Christopher Robert Reed, All the World is Here: The Black Presence at White City (2000)

Thomas Adams Upchurch, Legislating Racism: The Billion Dollar Congress and the Birth of Jim Crow (2004)

 

 Social, Cultural, Intellectual Studies:

Mary White Ovington, Black and White Sat Down Together: The Reminiscences of an NAACP Founder (1995)

Charles F. Kellogg, NAACP: A History of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1967)

Gilbert Jonas, Freedom’s Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle Against Racism in America, 1909-1969 (2005)

Robert L. Zangrando, The NAACP Campaign against Lynching, 1909-1950 (1980)

Arnold H. Taylor, Travail and Triumph: Black Life and Culture in the South Since the Civil War (1976)

John Hope Franklin, George Washington Williams: A Biography (1985)

Beverly Washington Jones, Quest for Equality: The Life and Writings of Mary Eliza Church Terrell, 1863-1954 (1990)

Barbara H. Andolsen, Daughters of Jefferson, Daughters of Bootblacks: Racism and American Feminism (1986)

Mrs. N. F. Mossell, The Work of the Afro-American Woman (1896)

Anna Julia Cooper, A Voice from the South (1892)

Kathy Russell, Midge Wilson and Ronald Hall, The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans (1992)

Jonathan Scott Holloway, Confronting the Veil: Abram Harris Jr., E. Franklin Frazier, and Ralph Bunche, 1919-1941 (2002)

Kenneth Robert Janken, Rayford W. Logan and the Dilemma of the African-American Intellectual (1993)

Ben Keppel, The Work of Democracy: Ralph Bunche, Kenneth B. Clark, Lorraine Hansberry and the Cultural Politics of Race (1995)

Jerry G. Watts Heroism and the Black Intellectual: Ralph Ellison, Politics, and Afro-American Intellectual Life (1990)

Clarence E. Walker, Deromanticizing Black History: Critical Essays and Reappraisals (1991)

Michael Tonry, Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America (1996)

Daryl Michael Scott, Contempt and Pity: Social Policy and the Image of the Damaged Black Psyche, 1880-1996 (1996)

Kenneth R. Manning, Black Apollo of Science: The Life of Ernest Everett Just (1983)

Linda O. McMurry, George Washington Carver: Scientist and Symbol (1981)

Ross Posnock, Color and Culture: Black Writers and the Making of the Modern Intellectual (1998)

Paul Gilroy, Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line (2000)

Sudarshan Kapur, Raising Up A Prophet: The African American Encounter with Gandhi (1992)

Jonathan Coleman, Long Way to Go: Black and White in America (1997)

William M. Banks, Black Intellectuals (1996)

Wayne J. Urban, Black Scholar: Horace Mann Bond, 1904-1972 (1992)

Jacqueline Goggin, Carter G. Woodson: A Life in Black History (1992)

Paula Giddings, In Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the Challenge of the Black Sorority Movement (1988)

Ralph Crowder, John Edward Bruce: The Legacy of a Politician, Journalist, and Self-Trained Historian of the African Diaspora (2003)

Benjamin P. Bowser and Louis Kushnick, Against the Odds: Scholars Who Challenged Racism in the Twentieth Century (2002)

Gerald Horne, Race Woman: The Lives of Shirley Graham Du Bois (2000)

William Turner and Edward J. Cabbell, Blacks in Appalachia (1985)

Richard Sears, A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky: Integration and Social Equality at Berea, 1866-1904 (1996)

 

African Americans and the Military:

William H. Leckie, The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West (1967)

Willard Gatewood, ed., Smoked Yankees and the Struggle for Empire: Letters from Negro Soldiers, 1898-1902 (1971)

John D. Weaver, The Brownsville Raid (1971)

Robert V. Haynes, A Night of Violence: The Houston Riot of 1917 (1976)

Arthur W. Little, From Harlem to the Rhine: The Story of New York’s Colored Volunteers (1936)

Arthur E. Barbeau and Florette Henri, Black American Troops in World War I (1974)

Lawrence P. Scott and William M. Womack, Sr., Double V: The Civil Rights Struggle of the Tuskegee Airmen (1994)

Martha S. Putney, When the Nation Was in Need: Blacks in the Women's Army Corps During World War II (1992)

Judy Barrett Litoff and David C. Smith, We're in this War Too: World War II Letters from African American Women in Uniform (1994)

Brenda L. Moore, To Serve My Country, To Serve My Race: The Story of the Only African American WACS Stationed Overseas during World War II (1996)

Charity Adams Earley, One Woman’s Army: A Black Officer Remembers the WAC (1989)

Maureen Honey, Bitter Fruit: African American Women in World War II (1999)

Robert Allen, Port Chicago Mutiny: The Story of the Largest Mass Mutiny in U.S. Naval History (1989)

Paul Stillwell, ed., The Golden Thirteen: Recollections of the First Black Naval Officers (1993)

Alan Osur, Blacks in the Army Air Forces during World War II: The Problem of Race Relations (1977)

Charles W. Dryden, A-Train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman (1997)

Robert J. Jakeman, The Divided Skies: Establishing Segregated Flight Training at Tuskegee, Alabama, 1934-1942, (1992)

Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography (1991)

Stanley Sandler, Segregated Skies: All-Black Combat Squadrons of World War II (1992)

Lou Potter, Liberators: Fighting on Two Fronts in World War II (1992)

Philip McGuire, ed., Taps For a Jim Crow Army: Letters from Black Soldiers in World War II (1992)

Philip McGuire, He, Too, Spoke for Democracy: Judge Hastie, World War II, and the Black Soldier (1985)

Curtis Morrow, What’s a Commie Ever Done to Black People? A Korean War Memoir of Fighting in the U.S. Army’s Last All Negro Unit (1997)

Mary Pat Kelly, Proudly We Served: The Men of the USS Mason (1995)

Wallace Terry, Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans (1984)

Herman Graham III, The Brothers’ Vietnam War: Black Power, Manhood, and the Military Experience (2003)

 

Black Migration and Pre-20th Century Urban Studies:

W.E.B. DuBois, The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study (1899)

__________, The Black North in 1901: A Social Study (1969)

John Blassingame, Black New Orleans, 1860-1880 (1973)

David Katzman, Before the Ghetto: Black Detroit in the Nineteenth Century (1973)

Douglas Henry Daniels, Pioneer Urbanites: A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco (1980)

Esther Hall Mumford, Seattle's Black Victorians, 1852-1901 (1980)

Thomas C. Cox, Blacks in Topeka, Kansas 1865-1915, A Social History (1982)

Roberta Senechal,  The Sociogenesis of a Race Riot: Springfield, Illinois, in 1908 (1990)

Hollis R. Lynch, ed., The Black Urban Condition: A Documentary History, 1866-1971 (1973)

William Cohen, At Freedom's Edge: Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control, 1861-1915 (1991)

Irma Watkins-Owens, Blood Relations: Caribbean Immigrants and the Harlem Community, 1900-1930 (1996)

Henry Lewis Suggs, ed., The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985 (1997)

Nina Mjagkij, Light in the Darkness: African Americans and the YMCA, 1852-1946 (1992)

Elisabeth Lasch-Quinn, Black Neighbors: Race and the Limits of Reform in the American Settlement House Movement, 1890-1945 (1993)

Neil Foley, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (1997)

 

The Great Migration:

Abraham Epstein, The Negro Migrant to Pittsburgh (1918)

Carter G. Woodson, A Century of Negro Migration (1918)

U.S. Department of Labor, Division of Negro Economics, Negro Migration in 1916-1917 (1919)

Emmett J. Scott, Negro Migration During the War (1920)

Thomas J. Woofter,  Negro Migration (1920)

Louise V. Kennedy, The Negro Peasant Turns Cityward (1930)

Clyde Kiser, Sea Island to City: A Study of St. Helena Islanders in Harlem and Other Urban Centers (1932)

Ira De Augustine Reid, The Negro Immigrant: His Background, Characteristics and Social Adjustments, 1899-1937 (1939)

Spencer Crew, Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration, 1915-1940 (1987)

Nicholas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America (1990)

Carole Marks, FarewellWe're Good and Gone:  The Great Black Migration, (1989)

Florette Henri, Black Migration: Movement North, 1900-1920 (1976)

Elliott M. Rudwick, Race Riot at East St. Louis, July 2, 1917 (1964)

William M. Tuttle, Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 (1970)

Joe W. Trotter, ed., The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of Race, Class & Gender (1991)

Neil Fligstein, Going North: Migration of Blacks and Whites from the South, 1900-1950 (1981)

Alferdteen Harrison, ed., Black Exodus: The Great Migration from the American South (1991)

Adrienne Lash Jones, Jane Edna Hunter: A Case Study of Black Leadership, 1910-1950 (1990)

Beverly Washington Jones, Quest for Equality: The Life and Writings of Mary Eliza Church Terrell, 1863-1954 (1990)

Malaika Adero, ed., Up South: Stories, Studies and Letters of This Century's African American Migrations (1993)

Vanessa Northington Gamble, Making a Place for Ourselves: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920-1945 (1995)

Elizabeth Lasch-Quinn, Black Neighbors: Race and the Limits of Reform in the American Settlement House Movement (1993)

Howard Rabinowitz, ed., Race, Ethnicity, and Urbanization: Selected Essays (1993)

Farah Jasmine Griffin, Who Set You Flowin?: The African American Migration Narrative (1995)

W. Burghardt Turner and Joyce Moore Turner, eds., Richard B. Moore, Caribbean Militant in Harlem: Collected Writings, 1920-1972 (1988)

Mark Robert Schneider, Boston Confronts Jim Crow, 1890-1920 (1997)

Carolyn Wedin, Inheritors of the Spirit: Mary White Ovington and the Founding of the NAACP (1998)

Mildred I. Thompson, Ida B. Wells-Barnett: An Exploratory Study of an American Black Woman, 1893-1930 (1990)

 

Community Building\The Black Metropolis:

St. Clair Drake and Horace Cayton, Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City (1945)

Gilbert Osofsky, Harlem: The Making of A Ghetto, 1890-1930 (1966)

Allen Spear, Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto (1967)

George C. Wright, Life Behind A Veil: Blacks in Louisville, Kentucky, 1865-1930 (1985)

Kenneth L. Kusmer, A Ghetto Takes Shape: Black Cleveland, 1870-1930 (1976)

Richard W. Thomas, Life is for Us What We Make It: Building Black Community in Detroit, 1915-1945 (1992)

Joe W. Trotter, Black Milwaukee: The Making of An Industrial Proletariat, 1915-1945 (1985)

Peter Gottlieb, Making Their Own Way: Southern Blacks' Migration to Pittsburgh, 1916-1930 (1987)

James R. Grossman, Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration (1989)

Ronald H. Bayor, Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta (1996)

Henry Louis Taylor, ed., Race and the City: Work, Community, and Protest in Cincinnati, 1820-1970 (1993)

Henry Louis Taylor and Walter Hill, eds., Historical Roots of the Urban Crisis: African Americans in the Industrial City, 1900-1950 (2000)

Victoria W. Wolcott, Remaking Respectability: African American Women in Interwar Detroit (2001)

Kimberley L. Phillips, AlabamaNorth: African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915-45 (1999)

Harold X. Connolly, A Ghetto Grows in Brooklyn (1977)

Darrrel E. Bigham, We Ask Only A Fair Trial: A History of the Black Community of Evansville, Indiana (1987)

Albert S. Broussard, Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900-1954 (1993)

Quintard Taylor, The Forging of A Black Community: Seattle’s Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (1994)

Kenneth W. Goings and Raymond A. Mohl, eds., The New African American Urban History (1996)

Theodore Kornweibel, Jr., ed. In Search of the Promised Land: Essays in Black Urban History (1981)

Arnold R. Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto, Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960 (1983)

Earl Lewis, In Their Own Interests: Race, Class, and Power in Twentieth-Century Norfolk, Virginia (1991)

Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community (1996)

Sherry Lamb Schirmer, A City Divided: The Racial Landscape of Kansas City, 1900-1960 (2002)

Shirley Ann Wilson Moore, To Place Our Deeds: The African American Community in Richmond, California, 1910-1963 (2000)

Cheryl Lynn Greenberg, "Or Does It Explode?": Black Harlem in the Great Depression (1991)

Christopher Robert Reed, The Chicago NAAPC and the Rise of Black Professional Leadership, 1910-1966 (1997)

Robert D. Bullard, Invisible Houston: The Black Experience in Boom and Bust (1987)

Robert W. Weems, Jr., Black Business in the Black Metropolis: The Chicago Metropolitan Assurance Company, 1925-1985 (1996)

Thomas J. Sugure, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (1996)

Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (2003)

David Schuyler, A City Transformed: Redevelopment, Race, and Suburbanization in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1940-1980 (2003)

Josh Sides, L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present (2003)

Douglas Flamming, Bound for Freedom: Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America (2005)

 

The Harlem Renaissance:

Alain Locke, ed., The New Negro: An Interpretation (1925)

James Weldon Johnson, Along This Way (1933)

David Levering Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue (1981)

Michael W. Peplow and Arthur P. Davis, ed., The New Negro Renaissance: An Anthology (1975)

Langston Hughes, The Big Sea, (1940)

June Sochen, ed., The Black Man and the American Dream: Negro Aspirations in America, 1900-1930 (1971)

Arna Bontemps, ed., The Harlem Renaissance Remembered, (1972)

Nathan Irvin Huggins, Harlem Renaissance (1973)

_________________, ed., Voices from the Harlem Renaissance (1976)

Arnold Rampersad, The Life of Langston Hughes, Volume I: 1902-1941: I, Too Sing America (1986)

________________, The Life of Langston Hughes, Volume II: 1941-1967: I Dream a World (1972)

Nellie Y. McKay, Jean Toomer, Artist: A Study of His Literary Life and Work, 1894-1936 (1990)

Wayne F. Cooper, Claude McKay, Rebel Sojourner in the Harlem Renaissance (1987)

Cheryl A. Wall, Women of the Harlem Renaissance (1995)

Tyronne Tillery, Claude McKay: A Black Poet's Struggle for Identity (1992)

Eugene Levy, James Weldon Johnson: Black Leader, Black Voice (1973)

Thadious M. Davis, Nella Larsen: Novelist of the Harlem Renaissance (1994)

Gloria T. Hull, Color, Sex, and Poetry: Three Women Writers of the Harlem Renaissance (1987)

Robert Hemenway, Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Biography (1977)

Cynthia E. Kerman, The Lives of Jean Toomer: A Hunger for Wholeness (1987)

Pamela Bordelon, ed.,  Go Gator and Muddy the Water: Writings by Zora Neale Hurston from the Federal Writers Project (1999)

Steven Watson, The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African American Culture, 1920-1930 (1995)

Victor A. Kramer, ed., The Harlem Renaissance Re-examined (1987)

Carole Marks and Diana Edkins, The Power of Pride: Stylemakers and Rulebreakers of the Harlem Renaissance (1999)

Margaret Walker, Richard Wright, Daemonic Genius: A Portrait of the Man, a Critical Look at His Work (1988)

Henry Louis Gates and Nellie Y. McKay, eds., Norton Anthology of African American Literature (1997)

 

Twentieth Century Black Music:

W.C. Handy, Father of the Blues: An Autobiography (1941)

Alan Lomax, Mr. Jelly Roll: The Fortunes of Jelly Roll Morton, New Orleans Creole and “Inventor of Jazz” (1950)

Eileen Southern, The Music of Black Americans: A History (1983)

Michael W. Harris, The Rise of Gospel Blues: The Music of Thomas Andrew Dorsey in the Urban Church (1992)

Jules Schwerin, Go To Tell It: Mahalia Jackson, Queen of Gospel (1992)

Donald Clarke, Wishing on the Moon: The Life and Times of Billie Holiday (1994)

Robert G. O’Meally, Lady Day: The Many Faces of Billie Holliday (1991)

Steven C. Tracy, Going to Cincinnati: A History of the Blues in the Queen City (1993)

Burton W. Peretti, The Creation of Jazz: Music, Race, and Culture in Urban America (1993)

Scot De Veaux, BeBop: A Social and Musical History (1997)

Alyn Shipton, Groovin’ High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie (1999)

William Barlow, Looking Up at Down: The Emergence of Blues Culture (1989)

Samuel A Floyd, Jr., The Power of Black Music: Interpreting Its History from Africa to the United States (1995)

Brian Ward, Just My Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race Relations (1998)

Craig H. Werner, A Change is Gonna Come: Music, Race & the Soul of America (1999)

_____________, Playing the Changes: From Afro-Modernism to the Jazz Impulse (1994)

George Nelson, “Where Did Our Love Go?”: The Rise and Fall of the Motown Sound (1985)

Gerald L Early, One Nation Under A Grove: Motown and American Culture (1995)

Gerald L. Posner, Motown: Music, Money, Sex and Power (2002)

Suzanne E. Smith, Dancing in the Street: Motown and the Cultural Politics of Detroit (1999)

Errol Henderson, Black Nationalism and Rap Music (1992)

Tricia Rose, Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America (1994)

Brian Cross, It’s Not about a Salary…Rap, Race and Resistance in Los Angeles (1993)

Guthrie P. Ramsey, Race Music: Black Cultures from Bebop to Hip-Hop (2003)

Charley Gerard, Jazz in Black and White: Race, Culture and Identity in the Jazz Community (2001)

George Nelson, Hip Hop America (1999)

Jeff Chang, Can’t Stop, Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip Hop Generation (2005)

 

African Americans and Organized Labor:

William H. Harris, The Harder We Run: Black Workers in America, (1982)

Horace Huntley and David Montgomery, eds., Black Workers’ Struggle for Equality in Birmingham (2004)

Calvin Winslow, ed., Waterfront Workers: New Perspectives on Race and Class (1998)

Keith Griffler, What Price Alliance?: Black Radicals Confront White Labor, 1918-1938 (1995)

Rick Halpern, Down on the Killing Floor: Black and White Workers in Chicago’s Packinghouses, 1904-54 (1997)

Eric Arnesen, Waterfront Workers of New Orleans: Race, Class and Politics, 1863-1923 (1991)

Charles Denby, Indignant Heart: The Journal of An Afro-American Automobile Worker, (1979).

Henry V. McKiven, Jr., Iron and Steel: Class, Race, and Community in Birmingham, Alabama, 1875-1920 (1989)

Jervis Anderson, A Philip Randolph: A Biographical Portrait (1983)

William H. Harris, Keeping the Faith: A Philip Randolph, Milton P. Webster and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1927-1937 (1977)

Beth Tompkins Bates, Pullman Porters and the Rise of Protest Politics in Black America, 1925-1945 (2001)

Jack Santino, Miles of Smiles, Years of Struggle: Stories of Black Pullman Porters (1989)

Larry Tye, Rising From the Rails: Pullman Porters and the Making of the Black Middle Class (2004)

Roger Howorwitz, “Negro and White, Unite and Fight”: A Social History of Industrial Unionism in Meatpacking, 1930-90, (1997)

Daniel Letwin, The Challenge of Interracial Unionism: Alabama Coal Miners, 1878-1921 (1998)

Michael K. Honey, Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers (1993)

August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, Black Detroit and the Rise of the UAW (1979)

Paula F. Pfeiffer, A Philip Randolph, Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (1990)

Bruce Nelson, Divided We Stand: American Workers and the Struggle for Black Equality (2001)

Heather Ann Thompson, Whose Detroit? Politics, Labor and Race in a Modern American City (2001)

Ruth Needleman, Black Freedom Fighters in Steel: The Struggle for Democratic Unionism (2003)

 

Garveyism, The Depression, the Communist Party:

Marcus Garvey, Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey (1969)

E. David Cronon, Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (1955)

Robert A. Hill, et. al. eds., The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers (7 vols.) (1983-1990)

Tony Martin, Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (1976)

Ula Yvette Taylor, The Veiled Garvey: The Life and Times of Amy Jacques Garvey (2002)

Judith Stein, The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society (1991)

Emory J. Tolbert, The UNIA and Black Los Angeles: Ideology and Community in the American Garvey Movement, (1980)

Raymond Wolters, Negroes and the Great Depression: The Problem of Economic Recovery (1970)

Theodore Kornweibel, Jr., Seeing Red: Federal Campaigns against Black Militancy, 1919-1925 (1998)

Philip S. Foner and James S. Allen, eds., American Communism and Black Americans: A Documentary history, 1919-1929 (1987)

Mark Naison, Communists in Harlem During the Depression (1983)

Manning Marable, W.E.B. DuBois: Black Radical Democrat (1986)

Gerald Horne, Black Liberation/Red Scare: Ben Davis and the Communist Party (1991)

Harry Haywood, Black Bolshevik: Autobiography of an Afro-American Communist (1978)

Benjamin Davis, Communist Councilman from Harlem (1969)

Wilson Record, The Negro and the Communist Party (1951)

Robert Robinson, Black on Red: My 44 Years Inside the Soviet Union (1988)

Yelena Khanga, Soul to Soul: A Black Russian American Family, 1865-1992 (1992)

Cedric J. Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of a Black Radical Tradition (1983)

Henry Williams, The Black Response to the American Left: 1917-1929 (1973)

Robin D. G. Kelley, Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression (1990)

Earl Ofari Hutchinson, Blacks and Reds: Race and Class in Conflict, 1919-1990 (1995)

Linda Reed, Simple Decency and Common Sense: The Southern Conference Movement, 1938-1963 (1991)

Nancy Weiss, Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR (1983)

Kenneth W. Goings, The NAACP Comes of Age: The Defeat of Judge John J. Parker (1990)

Charles P. Henry, Ralph J. Bunche: Selected Speeches and Writings (1996)

Patricia Sullivan, Days of Hope: Race and Democracy in the New Deal Era (1996)

Vanessa Siddle Walker, Their Highest Potential: An African American School Community in the Segregated South (1996)

Roi Ottley, The Lonely Warrior: The Life and Times of Robert S. Abbott (1955)

Robert Buni, Robert L. Vann of the Pittsburgh Courier (1974)

Bill Mullen, Popular Fronts: Chicago and African American Cultural Politics, 1935-46 (1999)

 

Religion and African Americans

C. Eric Lincoln and Lawrence H. Mamiya, The Black Church in the African American Experience (1990)

Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the U.S.A. (1988)

Robert Gregg, Sparks from the Anvil of Oppression: Philadelphia's African Methodists and Southern Migrants, 1890-1940 (1994)

Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Righteous Discontent: The Women's Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920 (1993)

Milton C. Sernett, Bound for the Promised Land: African American Religion and the Great Migration (1997)

Randall K. Burkett, Garveyism as a Religious Movement: The Institutionalization of a Black Civil Religion (1978)

Robert Weisbrot, Father Divine and the Struggle for Racial Equality, (1983)

Jill Watts, God, Harlem U.S.A.: The Father Divine Story (1991)

Cornel West and Eddie S. Glaude, Jr., eds., African American Religious Thought: An Anthology (2003)

Clarence Taylor, The Black Churches of Brooklyn (1996)

Ida Rousseau Mukenge, The Black Church in Urban America: A Case Study in Political Economy (1983)

Dona Irvin, The Unsung Heart of Black America: A Middle Class Church at Mid-century (1992)

France Davis, Light in the Midst of Zion: A History of Black Baptists in Utah, 1892-1996 (1997)

Calvin H. Bowers, Realizing the California Dream: The Story of the Black Churches of Christ in Los Angeles (2001)

Michael A. Koszegi and J. Gordon Melton, Islam in North America (1992)

Richard Brent Turner, Islam in the African American Experience (2003)

Martha F. Lee, The Nation of Islam: An American Millenarian Movement (1996)

Clifton E. Marsh, From Black Muslims to Muslims (1996)

Claude Andrew Clegg III, An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad (1997)

Steven Barboza, American Jihad: Islam After Malcolm X (1993)

Yvonne Chireau and Nathaniel Deutsch, eds., Black Zion: African American Religious Encounters with Judaism (2000)

 

The 1940s and 1950s:

Daniel Kryder, Divided Arsenal: Race and the American State During World War II (2000)

A. Russell Buchanon, Black America in World War II (1977)

Henry Lee Moon, Balance of Power: The Negro Vote (1948)

Ronald Takaki, Double Victory: A Multicultural History of America in World War II (2000)

Charles V. Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr: The Political Biography of an American Dilemma (1991)

Martin Bauml Duberman, Paul Robeson: A Biography (1989)

Raymond Wolters, The Burden of Brown: Thirty Years of School Desegregation, (1992)

Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks, The Emergence of Civil Rights as a National Issue: The Depression Decade (1978)

Patricia Scott Washburn, A Question of Sedition: The Federal Government’s Investigation of the Black Press During World War II (1986)

Gerald L. Smith, A Black Educator in the Segregated South: Kentucky's Rufus B. Atwood (1992)

Nelson Perry, Black Fire: The Making of An American Revolutionary (1995)

Eric W. Rise, The Martinsville Seven: Race, Rape, and Capital Punishment (1995)

Spencie Love, One Blood: The Death and Resurrection of Charles R. Drew (1996)

William H. McClendon, Straight Ahead: Essays on the Struggle of Blacks in American, 1934-1994 (1995)

Gail Williams O’Brien, The Color of the Law: Race, Violence and Justice in the Post-World War II South (1999)

Nat Brandt, Harlem at War: The Black Experience in World War II (1996)

Mark V. Tushnet, Making Civil Rights Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936-1941 (1994)

Gerald Horne, Communist Front? The Civil Rights Congress, 1945-1956 (1988)

Stephen J. Whitfield, A Death in the Delta: The Story of Emmett Till (1988)

William C. Berman, The Politics of Civil Rights in the Truman Administration (1970)

Brian Urquhart, Ralph Bunche: An American Life (1993)

Gilbert Ware, William Hastie: Grace Under Pressure (1984)

Constance Baker Motley, Equal Justice under the Law: An Autobiography (1998)

Daisy Bates, The Long Shadow of Little Rock: Memoir (1962)

William Henry Kellar, Make Haste Slowly: Moderates, Conservatives and School Desegregation in Houston (1999)

Todd Gould, For Gold and Glory: Charlie Wiggins and the African-American Racing Car Circuit (2003)

Lawrence P. Crouchett, William Byron Rumford: The Life and Public Services of a California Legislator (1984)

 

African American Internationalism:

William R. Scott, The Sons of Sheba's Race: African-Americans and the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935-1941 (1993)

Joseph Harris, African American Reactions to War in Ethiopia, 1936-1941 (1994)

Alexander DeConde, Ethnicity, Race, and American Foreign Policy: A History (1992)

Brenda Gayle Plummer, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935-1960 (1996)

___________________, ed., Window on Freedom: Race, Civil Rights, and Foreign Affairs, 1945-1988 (2003)

Mary L. Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (2000)

Gerald Horne, Black and Read: W.E.B. DuBois and the Afro-American Response to the Cold War (1986)

Penny M. Von Eschen, Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937-1957 (1997)

Gabrielle Simon Edgcomb, From Swastika to Jim Crow: Refugee Scholars at Black Colleges (1993)

James Westheider, Fighting on Two Fronts: African Americans and the Vietnamese War (1997)

David J. Hellwig, African American Reflections on Brazil's Racial Paradise (1993)

Charles Green, ed., Globalization and Survival in the Black Diaspora: The New Urban Challenge (1997)

Gerald R. Horne, Black and Red: W.E.B. DuBois and the Afro-American Response to the Cold War, 1944-1963 (1986)

Sterling Johnson, Black Globalism: The International Politics of a Non-state Nation (1998)

Gerald Horne, Race Woman: The Lives of Shirley Graham DuBois (2000)

James H. Meriwether, Proudly We Can Be Africans: Black Americans and Africa, 1935-1961 (2002)

Thomas Borstelmann, The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena (2003)

Carol Anderson, Eyes Off the Prize: The United Nations and the African American Struggle for Human Rights, 1944-1955 (2003)

Heike Raphael-Hernandez, ed., Blackening Europe: The African American Presence (2004)

 

The Civil Rights Movement:

Stewart Burns, Daybreak of Freedom: The Montgomery Bus Boycott (1997)

Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (1981)

Howard Smead, Blood Justice: The Lynching of Mack Charles Parker (1986)

Mark V. Tushnet, The NAACP's Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925-1950 (1987)

Robert J. Norrell, Reaping the Whirlwind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee (1985)

William H. Chafe, Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom (1980)

August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, CORE: A Study in the Civil Rights Movement, 1942-1968 (1973)

Denton L. Watson, Lion in the Lobby: Clarence Mitchell, Jr.'s Struggle for the Passage of Civil Rights Laws (1990)

Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left (1979)

Richard Kluger, Simple Justice:  The History of Brown v. Board of Education, (1975)

Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters:  America in the King Years, 1954-63, (1988)

Martin Luther King, Why We Can't Wait, (1964)

Kenneth O’Reilly, Racial Matters: The FBI’s Secret File on Black America, 1960-1972 (1989)

David J. Garrow, The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. (1981) 

_____________, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1986)

_____________, ed., The Walking City: The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-1956 (1989)

Elizabeth Sutherland, ed., Letters From Mississippi, (1965)

William Bradford Huie, 3 Lives for Mississippi, (1968)

Howard Ball, Murder in Mississippi: United States v. Price and the Struggle for Civil Rights (2004)

Howell Raines, My Soul is Rested: The Black Civil Rights Movement, (1977)

Harvard Sitkoff, The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954‑1980 (1982)

Herbert Haines, Black Radicals and the Civil Rights Mainstream (1989)

Julian Bond, The Civil Rights Movement: An Eyewitness History (1993)

Adam Fairclough,  To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. (1987)

Charles M. Payne, I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (1995)

Alan B. Anderson and George W. Pickering, Confronting the Color Line: The Broker Promise of the Civil Rights Movement in Chicago (1986)

Vincent Harding, The Other American Revolution (1980)

Lewis V. Baldwin, There Is a Balm in Gilead: The Cultural Roots of Martin Luther King (1991)

Fred Powledge, Free At Last? The Civil Rights Movement and the People Who Made It (1991)

Seth Cagin and Philip Dray, We Are Not Afraid: The Story of Goodman, Schwerner and Chaney and the Civil Rights Campaign for Mississippi (1990)

Henry Hampton and Steve Fayer, Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement From the 1950s Through the 1980s (1989)

Doug McAdam, Freedom Summer (1988)

David E. Colburn, Racial Change and Community Crisis: St. Augustine, Florida, 1877-1980 (1991)

Hugh Davis Graham, Civil Rights and the Presidency: Race and Gender in American Politics, 1960-1972 (1992)

J. Harvie Wilkinson III, From Brown to Bakke: The Supreme Court and School Integration: 1945-1978 (1979)

E. Culpepper Clark, The Schoolhouse Door: Segregation's Last Stand at the University of Alabama (1993)

Raymond Wolters, The Burden of Brown: Thirty Years of School Desegregation (1992)

Richard A. Couto, Ain't Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Round: The Pursuit of Racial Justice in the Rural South (1993)

Kim Lacy Rogers, Righteous Lives: Narratives of the New Orleans Civil Rights Movement (1993)

Sean Dennis Cashman, African American and the Quest for Civil Rights, 1900-1990 (1992)

Giradeau A. Spann, Race Against the Court: The Supreme Court and Minorities in Contemporary America (1993)

James R. Ralph, Jr., Northern Protest: Martin Luther King, Jr., Chicago, and the Civil Rights Movement (1993)

Reed Massengill, Portrait of a Racist: The Man Who Killed Medgar Evers?  Written by his Own Nephew (1994)

John Dittmer, Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi (1994)

Adam Fairclough, Race and Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972 (1995)

Frank R. Parker, Black Votes Count: Political Empowerment in Mississippi after 1965 (1990)

Richard A. Couto, Lifting the Veil: A Political History of the Struggle from Emancipation (1993) [This is a history of the civil rights movement in my home county, Haywood County, Tennessee.]

Almetris Marsh Duren, Overcoming: A History of Black Integration at the University of Texas at Austin (1979)

Andrew M Manis, Macon, Black and White: An Unutterable Separation in the American Century (2004)

Davison M. Douglas, Reading, Writing and Race: The Desegregation of the Charlotte Schools (1996)

Forest R. White, Pride and Prejudice: School Desegregation and Urban Renewal in Norfolk, 1950-1959 (1992)

Eric Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them: Robert Paris Moses and Civil Rights in Mississippi (1995)

W. Edward Orser, Blockbusting in Baltimore: The Edmondson Village Story (1994)

Sharon Monteith and Peter Ling, eds., Gender in the Civil Rights Movement (1999)

Steven F. Lawson, Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America since 1941 (1991)

Jeanne F. Theoharis and Komozi Woodard, eds., Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles Outside the South, 1940-1980 (2003)

Martha Biondi, To Stand and Fight: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York City (2003)

James F. Findlay, Jr., Church People in the Struggle: The National Council of Churches and the Black Freedom Movement, 1950-1970 (1993)

Bayard Rustin, Troubles I’ve Seen (1996)

John D’Emilio, Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin (2003)

Roy Wilkins, Standing Fast: The Autobiography of Roy Wilkins (1994)

Septima Clark, Ready from Within: Septima Clark and the Civil Rights Movement (1986)

Dennis C. Dickerson, Militant Mediator, Whitney M. Young, Jr., 1921-1971 (1998)

James Farmer, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement (1985)

Cynthia Griggs Fleming, Soon We Will Not Cry: The Liberation of Ruby Doris Smith Robinson (1998)

Charles Eagles, ed., The Civil Rights Movement in America (1986)

Stephen N.G. Tuck, Beyond Atlanta: The Struggle for Racial Equality in Georgia, 1940-1980 (2003)

Clive Webb, Fight Against Fear: Southern Jews and Black Civil Rights (2003)

Laughlin McDonald, A Voting Rights Odyssey: Black Enfranchisement in Georgia (2003)

Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement (2003)

Peter B. Levy, Civil War on Race Street: The Civil Rights Movement in Cambridge, Maryland (2003)           

Peter Ling and Sharon Monteith, eds., Gender and the Civil Rights Movement (1999)

Peter Irons, Jim Crow’s Children: The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision (2002)

Christopher B. Strain, Pure Fire: Self-Defense as Activism in the Civil Rights Era (2005)

Gretchen Cassel Eick, Dissent in Wichita: The Civil Rights Movement in the Midwest, 1954-72 (2001)

 

Black Nationalism\Black Power:

Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks (1965)

Bruce Perry, Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America (1991)

Manning Marable, Malcolm X (1992)

Michael Eric Dyson, Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X (1995)

William W. Sales, From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1994)

Louis A. DeCaro, On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X (1995)

Joe Wood, ed., Malcolm X in Our Own Image (1992)

Larry Neal, Visions of a Liberated Future: Black Arts Movement and Writings, (1989)

Rosemari Mealy, Fidel and Malcolm: Memories of a Meeting (1993)

Karl Evanzz, The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X (1992)

Gerald Horne, Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s (1995)

Jerry Cohen and William S. Murphy, Burn, Baby, Burn:  The Los Angeles Race Riot August, 1965, (1966)

Paul Bullock, ed., Watts, The Aftermath : An Inside View of the Ghetto, By the People of Watts (1969)

Cleveland Sellers, The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC. (1973)

Leroi Jones, Home: Social Essays, (1966)

Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton, Black Power, (1967)

Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual, (1967)

Bobby Seale, Seize the Time (1970)

Kathleen [Cleaver] Rout, Eldridge Cleaver (1991)

Robert Scheer, ed., Eldridge Cleaver: Post-Prison Writings and Speeches (1969)

Elaine Brown, A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story (1992)

Hugh Pearson, The Shadow of the Panther: Huey Newton and the Price of Black Power in America (1994)

Charles E. Jones, ed., The Black Panther Party, Reconsidered (1998)

Toni Morrison, ed., To Die for the People: The Writings of Huey P. Newton (1995)

William L. Van DeBurg, New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975 (1992)

___________________, Black Camelot: African American Culture Heroes in their Times, 1960-1980 (1997)

___________________, Modern Black Nationalism: From Marcus Garvey to Louis Farrakhan (1997)

John T. McCartney, Black Power Ideologies: An Essay in African American Thought (1992)

George Frederickson, Black Liberation: A Comparative History of Black Ideologies in the United States and South Africa (1995)

W. Marvin Dulaney, Black Police in America (1996)

Robert Wintersmith, Police and the Black Community (1974)

Ellis Cashmore and Eugene McLaughlin, eds., Out of Order? Policing Black People (1991)

Gerald Horne, The Fire This Time: Watts and the 1960s (1995)

Sidney Fine, Violence in the Model City: The Cavanagh Administration, Race Relations and the Detroit Riot of 1967 (1989)

Dikran Karagueuzian, Blow It Up! The Black Student Revolt at San Francisco State College and the Emergence of Dr. Hayakawa (1971)

Robin D.G. Kelley, Race Rebels: Culture, Politics and the Black Working Class (1994)

Abraham Kinfe, Politics of Black Nationalism: From Harlem to Soweto (1991

Richard McCormick, The Black Student Protest Movement at Rutgers (1990)

Amy Alexander, ed., The Farrakhan Factor: African American Writers on Leadership, Nationhood and Minister Louis Farrakhan (1998)

Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones) & Black Power Politics (1999)

Rod Bush, We are Not What We Seem: Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century (1999)

Scot Brown, Fighting for US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization and Black Cultural Nationalism (2003)

Joy Ann Williamson, Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965-75 (2003)

Nikhil Singh, Black is a Country: Race and Democracy beyond Civil Rights (2004)

William L. Van Deburg, Hoodlums: Black Villains and Social Bandits in American Life (2004)

Edward C. Hayes, Power Structure and Urban Policy: Who Rules in Oakland? (1972) 

Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (2003)

 

Black Women:

Jacqueline Jones, Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow:  Black Women, Work and Family From Slavery to the Present (1985)

Paula Giddings, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (1984)

Gerda Lerner, ed., Black Women in White America: A Documentary History (1972)

Darlene Clare Hine, Black Women in United States History (12 vols.) (1990)

Darlene Clark Hine, Wilma King and Linda Reed, We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible: A Reader in Black Women's History (1995)

Tera W. Hunter, To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War (1997)

Stephanie Shaw, What a Woman Ought to Be and to Do: Black Professional Women During the Jim Crow Era (1995)

Doris L. Rich, Queen Bess: Daredevil Aviator (1993)

A’Lelia Bundles, On Her Own Ground: The Life and Times of Madam C. J. Walker (2001)

Mary Church Terrell, A Colored Woman in a White World (1940)

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920 (1998)

Jo Ann Gibson Robinson, The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started It (1987)

Carol Stack, All Our Kin: Strategies for Survival in a Black Community (1974)

Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, ed., The Afro-American Woman: Struggles and Images (1978)

J. Clay Smith, Jr., ed., Rebels in Law: Voices in History of Black Women Lawyers (1998)

Deborah Gray White, Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves (1999)

Brenda Clegg Gray, Black Female Domestics During the Great Depression in New York City, 1930-1940 (1993)

Cynthia Neverdon-Morton,  Afro-American Women of the South and the Advancement of the Race, 1895-1925 (1998)

Elizabeth Clark-Lewis, Living In, Living Out: African American Domestics in Washington, D.C., 1910-1940 (1994)

Gloria Joseph and Jill Lewis, Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives (1981)

Vicki L. Crawford, ed., Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers, 1941-1965 (1993)

Mary Stanton, From Selma to Sorrow: The Life and Death of Viola Liuzzo (1998)

Lorraine Nelson Spritzer and Jean B. Bergmark, Grace Towns Hamilton and the Politics of Southern Change (1998)

Angela Davis, Women, Race and Class (1981)

___________, Women, Culture and Politics (1989)

Paula Giddings, In Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the Challenge of the Black Sorority Movement (1988)

Combahee River Collective, Combahee River Collective Statement: Black Feminist Organizing in the Seventies and Eighties (1986)

Paula Rothenberg, Racism and Sexism: An Integrated Study (1988)

Patricia Morton, Disfigured Images: The Historical Assault on Afro-American Women (1991)

Kay Mills, This Little Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer (1993)

Jill Quadagno, The Color of Welfare: How Racism Undermined the War on Poverty (1994)

Donna L. Franklin, Ensuring Inequality: The Structural Transformation of the African American Family 1997)

Midge Wilson and Kathy Russell, Divided Sisters: Bridging the Gap Between Black Women and White Women (1996)

Dolores Janiewski, Sisterhood Denied: Race, Gender and Class in a New South Community (1984)

Susan Lynn Smith, Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired: Black Women’s Health Activism (1995)

Jacqueline Bobo, Black Women as Cultural Readers (1996)

Mary Beth Rogers, Barbara Jordan: American Hero (1998)

Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (1990)

Stanlie M. James and Abena P.A. Busia, eds., Theorizing Black Feminisms: The Visionary Pragmatism of Black Women (1993)

Anita Faye Hill and Emma Coleman Jordan, eds., Race, Gender, and Power in America: The Legacy of the Hill-Thomas Hearings (1995)

Leith Mullings, On Our Own Terms: Race, Class, and Gender in the Lives of African American Women (1997)

Megan Taylor Shockley, “We, Too, Are Americans: African American Women in Detroit and Richmond, 1940-50 (2003)

Quintard Taylor and Shirley Ann Wilson Moore, African American Women Confront the West, 1600-2000 (2003)

 

Black Men:

Lawrence E. Gary, Black Men, (1981)

Martin Summers, Manliness and Its Discontents: The Black Middle Class & The Transformation of Masculinity, 1900-1930 (2004)

Rudolph P. Byrd and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, eds., Traps: African American Men on Gender and Sexuality (2001)

Herb Boyd and Robert L. Allen, eds., Brotherman: The Odyssey of Black Men in America--An Anthology (1996)

Garth and Karen Baker-Fletcher, Xodus: An African American Male Journey (1996)

Claudia Mitchell-Kernan, The Decline in Marriage Among African Americans: Causes, Consequences and Policy Implications (1995)

Haki R. Madhubuti, Black Men—Obsolete, Single, Dangerous? Afrikan American Families in Transition: Essays in Discovery, Solution and Hope (1990)

Haki R. Madhubuti & Maulana Karenga, eds., Million Man March/Day of Absence: A Commemorative Anthology (1996)

Hazel Carby, Race Men (1991)

Mitchell Duneier, Slim's Table: Race, Respectability, and Masculinity (1993)

Philip Brian Harper, Are We Not Men?  Masculine Anxiety and the Problem of African American Identity (1996)

 

Gay Men and Lesbians:

Barbara Smith, ed., Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology (1983)

Audre Lorde, Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (1984)

Cheryl Clarke, Living As A Lesbian (1986)

Joseph Beam, ed., In The Life: A Black Gay Anthology (1986)

Colin Robinson, Other Countries: Black Gay Voices (1988)

Thomas H. Wirth, ed., Gay Rebel of the Harlem Renaissance: Selections from the Work of Richard Bruce Nugent (2002)

John D’Emilio, Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin (2003)

A.B. Christa Schwarz, Gay Voices of the Harlem Renaissance (2003)

William G. Hawkeswood, One of the Children: Gay Black Men in Harlem (1996)

Robert F. Reid-Pharr, Black Gay Man: Essays (2001)

Keith Boykin, Beyond the Down Low (2005)

 

Multi Racial People\Racial Alliances:

John Mencke, Mulattoes and Race Mixture: American Attitudes and Images, 1865-1918 (1979)

Joel Williamson, New People: Miscegenation and Mulattoes in the United States (1980)

Paul R. Spickard, Mixed Blood: Intermarriage and Ethnic Identity in 20th Century America (1989)

F. James Davis, Who is Black? One Nation’s Definition (1991)

Maureen Reddy, Crossing the Color Line: Race, Parenting, and Culture (1994)

James McBride, The Color of Water: A Black Man’s Tribute to His White Mother (1996)

Kerry Ann Rockquemore and David L. Brunsma, eds., Beyond Black: Biracial Identity in America (2002)

Jon Spencer, The New Colored People: The Mixed Race Movement in America (1997)

Carol Aisha Blackshire-Belay, ed., The Afro-German Experience (1996)

Tina Campt, Other Germans: Black Germans and the Politics of Race, Gender and Memory in the Third Reich (2004)

Gary Nash, Forbidden Love: The Secret History of Mixed Race America (1999)

Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, ed., Love Across the Color Line: The Letters of Alice Hanley to Channing Lewis (1996)

Mary Hodes, ed., Sex, Love, Race: Crossing Boundaries in North American History (1999)

Kathleen Odell Korgen, From Black to Biracial: Transforming Racial Identity Among Americans (1998)

Heather M. Dalmage, Tripping on the Color Line: Black-White Multiracial Families in a Racially Divided World (2000)

_________________, ed., The Politics of Multiracialism: Challenging Racial Thinking (2004)

Barbara Tizard and Ann Phoenix, Black, White or Mixed Race? Race and Racism in the Lives of Young People of Mixed Parentage (2002)

G. Reginald Daniel, More Than Black? Multiracial Identity and the New Racial Order (2002)

Renee C. Romano, Race Mixing: Black-White Marriage in Postwar America (2003)

Cedric Herring, Verna M. Keith and Hayward Derrick Horton, eds., Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion Matter in the “Color-Blind” Era (2003)

James M. O’Toole, Passing for White: Race, Religion and the Healy Family, 1820-1920 (2003)

Gayle Wald, Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in Twentieth-Century U.S. Literature and Culture (2000)

 

Racial Alliances:

George Lipsitz, Dangerous Crossroads: Popular Music, Postmodernism and the Poetics of Place (1994)

Jonathan Kaufman, Broken Alliance: The Turbulent Times Between Blacks and Jews in America, (1989)

Murray Friedman, What Went Wrong? The Creation and Collapse of the Black-Jewish Alliance (1995)

Wendell Pritchett, Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the Changing Face of the Ghetto (2002)

August Meier, A White Scholar and the Black Community, 1945-1965 (1992)

Raphael J. Sonenshein, Politics in Black and White: Race and Power in Los Angeles (1992)

Osha Gray Davidson, The Best of Enemies: Race and Friendship in the Post-Civil Rights South (1996)

Clarence Page, Showing My Color: Impolite Essays on Race and Identity (1996)

 
 Affirmative Action\Diversity

Arthur Fletcher, The Silent Sell-Out: Government Betrayal of Blacks to the Craft Unions (1974)

Allan P. Sindler, Bakke, DeFunis, and Minority Admissions: The Quest for Equal Opportunity (1978)

Timothy J. O'Neil, Bakke & The Politics of Inequality: Friends and Foes in the Classroom of Litigation (1885)

Thomas Sowell, Affirmative Action Reconsidered: Was it Necessary in Academia? (1975)

Gertrude Ezorsky, Racism and Justice: The Case for Affirmative Action (1991)

Stephen Steinberg, Turning Back: The Retreat from Racial Justice in American Thought and Policy (1995)

Coramae Richey Mann, Unequal Justice: A Question of Color (1993)

Lani Guinier, Tyranny of the Majority: Fundamental Fairness and Representative Democracy (1995)

W. Avon Drake and Robert D. Holsworth, Affirmative Action and the Stalled Quest for Black Progress (1996)

Terry Anderson, The Pursuit of Fairness: A History of Affirmative Action (2004)

Sanford Levinson, Wrestling with Diversity (2003)

 

African American Athletes:

Jack  Johnson, Jack Johnson is a Dandy: An Autobiography (1999)

Jack Johnson, In the Ring and Out (1977)

Thomas R. Hietala, The Fight of the Century: Jack Johnson, Joe Louis and the Struggle for Racial Equality (2002)

Al Tony Gilmore, "Bad Nigger!": The National Impact of Jack Johnson (1975)

Randy Roberts, Papa Jack: Jack Johnson and the Era of White Hopes (1983)

Ocania Chalk, Black College Sport (1976)

Robert W. Peterson,  Only the Ball Was White: Negro Baseball, A history of Legendary Black Players and All Black Professional Teams before Black Men Played in the Major Leagues (1970)

Mark Ribowsky, The Power and the Darkness: The Life of Josh Gibson in the Shadows of the Game (1996)

David K. Wiggins, Glory Bound: Black Athletes in a White America (1997)

Arthur Ashe, A Hard Road to Glory: The History of the African-American Athlete (1993)

Richard Bak, Joe Louis: The Great Black Hope (1998)

Jeffrey T. Sammons, Beyond the Ring: The Role of Boxing in American Society (1988)

Arnold Rampersad, Jackie Robinson: A Biography (1997)

Sharon Robinson, Stealing Home: An Intimate Family Portrait (1996)

Mark Ribowsky, A Complete History of the Negro Leagues, 1884 to 1955 (1997)

Lyle Kenai Wilson, Sunday Afternoons at Garfield Park: Seattle's Black Baseball Teams, 1911-1951 (1997)

George Eisen and David K. Wiggins, eds., Ethnicity and Sport in North American History and Culture (1994)

Richard E. Lapchick, Five Minutes to Midnight: Race and Sport in the 1990s (1991)

Elliott J. Gorn, ed., Muhammad Ali: The People’s Champ (1995)

David Remnick, King of the World: Muhammad Ali and the Rise of an American Hero (1998)

Patrick B. Miller and David K. Wiggins, eds., Sport and the Color Line: Black Athletes and Race Relations in Twentieth Century America (2003)

 

Post-1970 Politics:

Randall Robinson, The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks (2000)

Robert C. Smith, We Have No Leaders: African Americans in the Post-Civil Rights Era (1996)

H. Viscount Nelson, The Rise and Fall of Modern Black Leadership (2003)

William J. Grimshaw, Bitter Fruit: Black Politics and the Chicago Political Machine, 1931-1991 (1993)

Carol Miller Swain, Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African Americans in Congress (1993)

Marshall Frady, Jesse: The Life and Pilgrimage of Jesse Jackson (1996)

Adolph Reed, Jr., The Jesse Jackson Phenomenon: The Crisis of Purpose in African American Politics (1986)

Charles P. Henry, Jesse Jackson: The Search for Common Ground (1991)

Theodore Rueter, The Politics of Race: African Americans and the Political System (1995)

Adolph Reed, Jr., Stirrings in the Jug: Black Politics in the Post Segregation Era (1999)

Richard A. Keiser, Subordination or Empowerment: African-American Leadership and the Struggle for Urban Political Power (1997)

William E. Nelson Jr. and Philip J. Meranto, Electing Black Mayors: Political Action in the Black Community (1977)

David Colburn and Jeffrey S. Adler, eds., African American Mayors: Race, Politics and the American City (2001)

Andrea Y. Simpson, The Tie That Binds: Identity and Political Attitudes in the Post-Civil Rights Generation (1998)

Michael C. Dawson, Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics (1994)

Wilbur C. Rich, Coleman Young and Detroit Politics (1989)

Jimmie Lewis Franklin, Back to Birmingham: Richard Arrington Jr., and His Times (1989)

Leonard N. Moore, Carl B. Stokes and the Rise of Black Political Power (2003)

Ronald V. Dellums, Lying Down with the Lions: A Public Life from the Streets of Oakland to the Halls of Power (2000)

James Richardson, Willie Brown: A Biography (1996)

 

Post-1970 Desegregation:

Gary Orfield, Must We Bus? Segregated Schools and National Policy (1978)

Robert A. Pratt, The Color of Their Skin: Education and Race in Richmond, Virginia, 1954-89 (1992)

Jonathan Kozel, Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools (1992)

R.P. Formisano, Boston Against Busing: Race, Class, and Ethnicity in the 1960s and 1970s (1991)

Paula S. Fass, Outside In: Minorities and the Transformation of American Education (1989)

Alex Kotlowitz, There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other America (1991)

Charles Wollenberg, All Deliberate Speed: Segregation and Exclusion in California Schools, 1855-1975 (1975)

Peter Irons, Jim Crow’s Children: The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision (2003)

John U. Ogbu, Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement (2003)

 

Post-1970 Capitalism, Modernity and the Color Line:

Manning Marable, How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America (1983)

Reynolds Farley and Walter R. Allen, The Color Line and the Quality of Life in America (1989)

Roy L. Brooks, Rethinking the American Race Problem (1992)

Rose L.H. Finkenstaedt, Face-to-Face: Blacks in America, White Perceptions and Black Realities (1994)

Charles J. Ogletree and others, Beyond the Rodney King Story: An Investigation of Police Conduct in Minority Communities (1995)

W. Lawrence Hogue, Race, Modernity, Postmodernity: A Look at the History and Literatures of People of Color Since the 1960s (1997)

Wade Hall, Passing for Black: The Life and Careers of Mae Street Kidd (1997)

Wilson Jeremiah Moses, Afrotopia: The Roots of African American Popular History (1998)

Cornel West, Race Matters (1993)

Michael Eric Dyson, Between God and Gangsta Rap: Bearing Witness to Black Culture (1996)

Samuel Walker, Cassia Spohn and Miriam DeLone, The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity and Crime in America (2004)

 
African Americans and the Media:

Thomas Cripps, Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942 (1977)

____________, Black Film as Genre (1978)

____________, Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era (1993)

Phyllis R. Klotman, African Americans in Cinema: The First Half Century (2003)

William Barlow, Voice Over: The Making of Black Radio (1999)

Manthia Diawara, ed., Black American Cinema (1993)

Melvin Patrick Ely, The Adventures of Amos ‘N’ Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon (1991)

Barbara Dianne Savage, Broadcasting Freedom: Radio, War, and the Politics of Race, 1938-1948 (1999)

Louis Cantor, Wheelin' on Beale: How WDIA-Memphis Became the Nation's First All-Black Radio Station and Created the Sound that Changed America (1992)

Herman Gray, Watching Race: Television and the Struggle for “Blackness” (1995)

Kristal Brent Zook, Color by Fox: The Fox Network and the Revolution in Black Television (1999)

Terry McMillan, Five for Five: The Films of Spike Lee (1991)

G. William James, Black Cinema Treasures: Lost and Found (1995)

Lola Young, 'Race', Gender and Sexuality in the Cinema (1996)

Sasha Torres, ed., Living Color: Race and Television in the United States (1998)

Aaron Gibbons, Race, Politics & the White Media: The Jesse Jackson Campaigns (1993)

Michael Martin, Cinemas of the Black Diaspora (1995)

Ronald Jacobs, Race, Media and the Crisis of Civil Society: From Watts to Rodney King (2000)

 

Race and Class in the United States: The Working Class, The Underclass

Robin D.G. Kelley, Race Rebels: Culture, Politics and the Black Working Class (1994)

_______________, Yo’Mama is DysFunckshional! (1998)

Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (1993)

Michael B. Katz, The Undeserving Poor: From the War on Poverty to the War on Welfare (1989)

__________, ed., The "Underclass" Debate: Views from History (1993)

Christopher Jencks, Rethinking Social Policy: Race Poverty and the Underclass (1992)

William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (1996)

William Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass and Public Policy (1987)

Martin Gilens, Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy (1999)

Mercer L. Sullivan, Getting Paid: Youth Crime and Work in the Inner City (1989)

Douglass Glasgow, The Black Underclass, (1981)

Christopher Jencks and Paul E. Peterson, eds., The Urban Underclass (1991)

George Lipsitz, A Life in the Struggle: Ivory Perry and the Culture of Opposition (1988)

Thomas Blair, Retreat to the Ghetto, (1977)

Ann C. Diver-Stamnes, Lives in the Balance: Youth, Poverty and Education in Watts (1995)

Michael Tonry, Malign Neglect--Race, Crime and Punishment in America (1995)

Jerome G. Miller, Search and Destroy: African American Males in the Criminal Justice System (1996)

Dan Georgakas and Marvin Surkin, Detroit: I Do Mind Dying: A Study in Urban Revolution (1998)

Race and Class in the United States: The Middle Class

Loren Schweninger, Black Property Owners in the South, 1790-1915 (1990)

Willard Gatewood, Aristocrats of Color: The Black Elite, 1880-1920 (1990)

William A. Muraskin, Middle Class Blacks in a White Society: Prince Hall Masonry (1975)

Dona L. Irvin, The Unsung Heart of Black America: A Middle-Class Church at Mid-century, (1992)

Bart Landry, The New Black Middle Class (1987)

Ellis Cose, The Rage of the Privileged Class (1993)

Jill Nelson, Volunteer Slavery: My Authentic Negro Experience (1993)

Lawrence Otis Graham, Our Kind of People: Inside America’s Black Upper Class (1999)

Lois Benjamin, The Black Elite: Facing the Color Line in the Twilight of the Twentieth Century (1991)

Richard L. Zweigenhaft and G. William Domhoff, Blacks in the White Establishment: A Study of Race and Class in America (1991)

Charles T. Banner-Haley, The Fruits of Integration: Black Middle Class Ideology and Culture, 1960-1990 (1994)

Joe Feagin, Living With Racism: The Experiences of the Black Middle Class (1994)

Orlando Patterson, The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment in America’s “Racial” Crisis (1997)

Melvin Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro, Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality (1995)

Gregory D. Squires and Sally O’Connor, Color and Money: Politics and Prospects for Community Reinvestment in Urban America (2001)

Gregory D. Squires, Capital and Communities in Black and White: The Intersections of Race, Class, and Uneven Development (1994)

Darlene Clark Hine, Speak Truth to Power: Black Professional Class in United States History (1996)

Mary Pattillo-McCoy, Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril Among the Black Middle Class (1999)

Robert E. Weems, Jr., Desegregating the Dollar: African American Consumerism in the 20th Century (1998)

Andrew Billingsley, Climbing Jacob’s Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-American Families (1993)

Carol Jenkins and Elizabeth Gardner Hines, Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black Millionaire (2004)

 

Black\White Conservatism:

Stan Faryna, Brad Stetson, and Joseph G. Conti, Black and Right: The Bold New Voice of Black Conservatives in America (1998)

George S. Schuyler, Black and Conservative: The Autobiography of George S. Schuyler (1966)

Shelby Steele, The Content of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America (1990)

_________, A Dream Deferred: The Second Betrayal of Black Freedom in America (1998)

Thomas Sowell, American Ethnic Groups (1978)

__________, Preferential Policies: An International Perspective (1990)

Glenn C. Loury, One by One from the Inside Out: Essays and Reviews on Race and Responsibility in America (1995)

Dinesh D'Souza, The End of Racism (1995)

Peter Collier and David Horowitz, The Race Card: White Guilt: Black Resentment, and the Assault on the Truth and Justice (1997)

John McWhorter, Losing the Race: Self-Sabotage in Black America (2000)

____________,  Authentically Black (2003)

Ward Connerly, Creating Equal: My Fight Against Race Preferences (2000)

Ronald Walters, White Nationalism, Black Interests: Conservative Public Policy and the Black Community (2003)

Peter Eisenstadt, Black Conservatism: The Republican Party and the African American Rush from Radicalism to Conservatism (1999)

Gayle T. Tate and others, eds., Dimensions of Black Conservatism in the United States (2002Z)

 

Africans and Afro-Caribbeans in African America:

Michel S. Laguerre, American Odyssey: Haitians in New York City (1984)

Tekle Mariam Woldemikael, Becoming Black American: Haitians and American Institutions in Evanston, Illinois (1989)

________________, Diasporic Citizenship: Haitian Americans in Transnational America (1998)

Kofi K. Aparku, African Emigres in the United States (1991)

George Gmelch, Double Passage: The Lives of Caribbean Migrants Abroad and Back Home (1992)

Christine G.T. Ho, Salt-water Trinnies: Afro-Trinidadian Immigrant Networks and Non-assimilation in Los Angeles (1991)

Philip Kasinitz, Caribbean New York: Black Immigrants and the Politics of Race (1992)

Marilyn Halter, Between Race and Ethnicity: Cape Verdean American Immigrants (1993)

Ransford W. Palmer, Pilgrims from the Sun: West Indian Migration to America (1995)

Barack Obama, Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance (1995)

Andres Torres, Between Melting Pot and Mosaic: African Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York Political Economy (1995)

Flore Zephir, Haitian Immigrants in Black America: A Sociological and Sociolinguistic Portrait (1996)

Alex Stepick, Pride Against Prejudice: Haitians in the United States (1998)

Mary C. Waters, Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities (1999)

John A. Arthur, Invisible Sojourners: African Immigrant Diaspora in the United States (2000)

Jon Holtzman, Nuer Journeys, Nuer Lives: Sudanese Refugees in Minnesota (2000)

Philippe Wamba, Kinship: A Family’s Journey in Africa and America (2000)

Leon Pamphile, Haitians and African Americans (2001)

 

African Americans and Other People of Color

Robert Gooding-Williams, ed., Reading Rodney King: Reading Urban Uprising (1993)

Edward T. Chang and Russell C. Leong, eds., Los Angeles—Struggles Toward Multiethnic Community: Asian American, African American & Latino Perspectives (1993)

Eui-Young Yu, ed., Black-Korean Encounter: Toward Understanding and Alliance, Dialogue between Black and Korean Americans in the Aftermath of the 1992 Los Angeles Riots (1994)

Nancy Abelman, Blue Dreams: Korean Americans and the Los Angeles Riots (1995)

Kwang Chung Kim, Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans (1999)

Judith Goode and Jo Anne Schneider, Reshaping Ethnic and Racial Relations in Philadelphia: Immigrants in a Divided City (1994)

Alejandro Portes and Alex Stepick, City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami (1993)

H. Edward Ransford, Race and Class in American Society: Black, Latino, Anglo (1994)

Roger Waldinger, Still the Promised City? African Americans and New Immigrants in Postindustrial New York (1996)

Frederick M. Binder and David M. Reimers, All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City (1995)

Vijay Prashad, Everybody was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and The Myth of Cultural Purity (2001)

 
 State and Regional Studies:

Melvin J. Banks, The Pursuit of Equality: The Movement for First Class Citizenship Among Negroes in Texas (1971)

Jimmie Lewis Franklin, Journey Toward Hope: A History of Blacks in Oklahoma (1971)

Richard E. Harris, The First 100 Years: A History of Arizona Blacks (1983)

Tom Baskett, Jr., Persistence of the Spirit: The Black Experience in Arkansas (1986)

Everett Louis Overstreet, Black on a Background of White: A Chronicle of Afro-Americans’ Involvement in America’s Last Frontier, Alaska (1988)

Donald L. Grant, The Way It Was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia (1995)

Carol B. Stack, Call to Home: African Americans Reclaim the Rural South (1996)

Joe William Trotter, Jr., and Eric Ledell Smith, African Americans in Pennsylvania: Shifting Historical Perspectives (1997)

Quintard Taylor, In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528-1990 (1998)

Shirley Moore and Quintard Taylor, eds., African American Women Confront the West, 1600-2000 (2003)

Lawrence B. de Graaf, Kevin Mulroy & Quintard Taylor, eds., Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California (2001)

 

Suburbanization:

Harold Rose, Black Suburbanization: Access to Improved Quality of Life or Maintenance of the Status Quo (1976)

Thomas A. Clark, Blacks in Suburbs (1979)

W. Dennis Keating, The Suburban Racial Dilemma: Housing and Neighborhoods (1994)

Valerie Johnson, Black Power in the Suburbs: The Myth or Reality of African American Political Incorporation (2002)

David Schuyler, A City Transformed: Redevelopment, Race, and Suburbanization in Lancaster, Pennsylvania (2002)

Andrew Wiese, Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century (2004)


 [J1]Prefer: It would be a few years before a growing number of African American educators. . . . . would begin to give attention to the role of culture in education.

 
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The Standards Movement:
Quality Control or Decoy?
by Asa Hilliard (1998)
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The following is condensed from a speech by the late Asa Hilliard (joined the Ancestors in 2007), former professor of urban education at Georgia State University in Atlanta. Hilliard is the author of numerous books and articles on education, particularly the education of African-American children, and his most recent book is SBA: The Reawakening of The African Mind, Gainesville, FL: Makare Publishers. Hilliard gave the speech at a conference last fall at Howard University on "Moving Beyond Standards To Provide Excellence and Equity in the African-American Community."

By Asa Hilliard

Is the standards movement a quality control movement, as it is advertised, or is it a decoy for something else?

We have been here before, with the standards movement. In fact, we reach a standards movement almost every three or four years. Some governor wants to manipulate the test score requirements or get a new test. Some president wants to manipulate test score requirements or get a new test. Somebody wants to change the standards of education, presumably as a way of raising the quality of schools and schooling and the achievement of children. I say presumably because I don't think that I can remember a time when that was really the reason for having a standards movement. If you want to raise quality, then standards manipulation is probably the last place that you would start.

Let me say at the outset that no one fears high standards, at least no Africans that I know. We do not fear clear standards. We do not fear uniform standards. We do not fear public standards. In fact, we have been at the forefront of standards of the highest order. [Asa Hilliard, Barbara Sizemore, et al, Saving the African American Child. Washington, DC: National Alliance of Black School Educators, 1984].

But what we need is honest school improvement that acknowledges both high standards and high quality of school input. The standards movement as it is now progressing at the national and state level is half the solution to the problem. To establish the standards of output without having standards of input is a travesty. To hold children responsible for outcomes without giving the same level of sophisticated attention to guaranteeing the standards of exposure is an abandonment of the responsibility of adults for the education and socialization of children.

africancenterededucation.jpgThat's why I used the title that I did: "Standards as Quality Control or Decoy?" I believe that the standards movement is generally a decoy. I don't care whether it's a Democrat or a Republican who calls for it. Usually, when people put so much emphasis on standards as a school reform tool, it means that they want to look like they're performing a reform effort, but they're actually moonwalking. They look like they're going forward but they're going backwards.

What most of us fear is that we will be held responsible for achievement without being given the same quality of treatment on the front end. We're not afraid of standards. We're afraid of hurdles, of obstacles. Standards, Assessment, and Instruction

There are several things to deconstruct here, because they're all tied together. When we say standards, you can talk about setting standards. You can also talk about the instruments to measure the standards, whether they're valid, invalid, biased, or unbiased. And you can talk about the quality of instruction to enable people to meet the standards. All of that is tied together. But we generally break these apart. As a result, we usually make mistakes in our analysis. If you're talking about using standards to get the achievement level of Americans up to snuff, then you're going to have to talk more broadly and deeply than we've been talking so far.

I'm a little bit tired of people getting credit for improving education by doing the cheapest thing they can do, which is to call for the manipulation of test scores or to create new standards. These new standards are not going to be any better than the ones the College Board developed in the College Board's Green Book: What Students Need to Know and Do in Order to Graduate from College. They're not going to be any higher or better than the standards of the National Alliance of Black School Educators, [Hilliard and Sizemore, et al, Saving the African American Child. Washington, DC: National Alliance of Black School Educators, 1984]. In fact, I'll take any standards that you come up with as long as they're high enough. If you get a consensus of a group of thinking people, I don't think you can write a set of standards that won't make sense.

Are you going to say "no" to calculus as a standard for the high school level? I think calculus is a reasonable standard. All children are brilliant enough to learn calculus, if you want to offer it to them. But if you want to teach calculus, you have to know calculus. And most teachers don't. So why blame the child for the inability to achieve when the deficiency is in the other place? Obviously, if you want the child to achieve in calculus and teachers don't know calculus, then now you've got to prepare the teachers. Now you're talking about staff development. See how it's all connected?

If someone really wants to raise the achievement of children, you've got to recognize reality in the classroom. Once you do so, you'll know that we'll have to do what we did in the 1960s. When this country thought that the Russians were ahead in the space race, when they put up Sputnik, the next thing that happened was that the U.S. massively mobilized for science education. It was science, science everywhere. We had a National Defense Education Act. Look at the language: education became a matter of national defense. When the rubber met the road, they knew they had to do something and they funded the process of doing it.

What's happening now? The budget is bankrupt on social welfare issues and nobody wants to do anything about it. So you manipulate the standards to make it look as if you're doing something. But you cannot fix the problems that are wrong in the public sector without providing resources.

If you want to reform schools, don't do it with testing. We used to say, "If you want elephants to grow, you don't weigh the elephants. You feed the elephants." Children will not grow unless they get quality instruction.

In some ways, I see the standards movement as Trivial Pursuit. We know it's not a reform tool and yet we move ahead as if it's a reform tool. I know why we ended up with national standards. After the Republicans gutted the social services budget, the politicians still wanted to look good to the people, so they could say they were making the best effort they could under the circumstances. In other words, they had to address the question, "What can I do with no money?" Basically, nothing but showboat. IQ Is a Scam

I also want to say something about irrationality and mental measurement, because part of this job is to find tests that tell us the truth. The mental measurement movement is typified by irrationality.

IQ is the biggest scam in the history of education. Nobody needs IQ testing. Nobody benefits when you do it. I'm in a very different position than most of you; I don't want an IQ test for Black kids, and one for green kids, and one for yellow kids, and one for red kids. I don't want any for anybody, because it offers no benefits to anyone. The issue is not bias. Sometimes, people get up here to discuss bias, when we should be asking, "Why is this foolish question about IQ being asked? Who said that a teacher has to know a child's ultimate capability before they start to teach?"

I have friends who are abandoning IQ because they know it's hot water right now, at least the old IQ test. Now they're all running to the Seven Intelligences measurement, so that we can have seven ways to rank kids instead of one. The problem is, the purpose of testing does not change when you shift from the one-dimensional intelligence to the seven-dimensional intelligence. If your purpose is to rank, rather than to diagnose and to fix, then you never shifted paradigms. You just changed the language. Maybe you changed some of the activity.

I was on a panel with Howard Gardner, author of Multiple Intelligences, and I asked him, "Do you know what people are doing with your tests? They say, 'Well, you don't have mathematical intelligence but maybe you have artistic intelligence, maybe a little musical intelligence.'" He said, "Well, I didn't mean that by that." I said, "I know. I didn't think you did. I think your constructs have much more to do with curriculum than they do with 'intelligence.'"

We have got to learn to ask new questions and not simply give a Black version of the white question. So intelligence testing should go out the window, as far as I'm concerned. Now if you want to know how we know it's irrational, get the book edited by Helga Rowe, Intelligence: Reconceptualization and Measurement, which are papers from a summit meeting of psychologists in mental measurement in Melbourne, Australia, in 1988. They were trying to figure out what was the state of the art in measurement, especially intelligence measurement, and they came away with three conclusions. Actually, there were probably more conclusions, but these are the three that interested me:

1. They couldn't agree on what intelligence was. That's what you might call a construct validity problem. It's a little hard to measure precisely when you don't have agreement on the construct.
2. There's no predictive validity to IQ tests unless you use low-level thinking as your achievement criteria. If you use high-level, complex, conceptually-oriented problem solving, then there's no correlation between IQ scores and achievement outcomes. This is serious, because that's where the IQ test is supposed to be making its contribution, in predictive validity. But it's not there unless you measure something that somebody has already had time to process.
3. If they can ever agree on what intelligence is, and if they can ever measure it, they will have to take context into account. That's what the Black psychologists have been arguing for before I was born: that the context is what gives meaning to a response. You can't universalize a dialogue, linguistically or culturally. It's scientific idiocy to do so. So you have to understand whose IQ is being tested -- those who make the irrational IQ tests. IQ testing doesn't do any good for anybody other than people who need work. It's a professional welfare program.

The disproportionate placement of African-American males in classes for the mentally retarded should have taught a prudent person that something is wrong with intelligence testing. When you get 25% of African-American males in Mississippi public schools in classes for the mentally retarded -- and no other group has a proportion like that -- maybe there's something with the tests that we ought to look at. But if you're irrational, you don't. You go ahead as if it couldn't be your test.

IQ tests, universally, are invalid. You cannot measure in absence of understanding of the context of the person. That means their culture, that means the political situation, that means their exposure to curriculum -- all of that adds up to context. Standards and Curriculum

I'm often called on to testify in court cases. In one case in Florida, the judge asked me, very impatiently, "Well, just give me an example of a biased item!" I said, "Well, Judge, all of them are biased." And he said, "No, no, no. I don't want to hear that; I want to hear a specific example!" I said, "Well, OK."

The transgressions are so gross in these tests, it's so easy. That's a softball question for me. So I said, "You know, let's take this section here of this test. This is about geography, the section on geography." He said, "Well, what's wrong with it?" I said, "Florida doesn't teach geography."

Wouldn't you think that would be a content validity problem? He reluctantly had to rule in favor of the plaintiffs. Afterwards, officials actually had to go back and institute a statewide curriculum in Florida. So now Florida has a curriculum, supposedly. They went through a process and now they say, "We have a curriculum, so we can have a test, and we can make measurement." But all they really have is a standard measure with no match between the standard and what is actually taught in school.

We're going to run the risk of the same thing at the national level. Why? I sat on a subcommittee of the Goals 2000 national goals panel when they were talking about national standards. One of the biggest problems they had was political, because the states don't want to be dictated to. Each state will set its own standards, if it wants to set standards. This potentially means 50 standards. But you're going to have one test, at the national level, to measure the 50 different standards? That's irrational. That means you can't be serious about what you said you were wanting to do.

I could go on. But the issue is, when we finally get down to the end of this standard dialogue, where will we stand on national assessment? What kind of assessment, achievement or otherwise? Will the assessment be rational? Will it be true content validity? Will there be an empirical way to test it or will we still fool ourselves on mental measurement?

There's also the question of a common national curriculum. If you're not ready for a national curriculum, you're not going to have national standards. And you certainly won't have national, standardized assessment, because there'll be a mismatch between the assessment and the sets of standards that go with each state, and maybe even substandards within each state. Opportunity to Learn

The real issue is one of common treatment, that is, opportunity to learn. One of the things we find is that there are a lot of people that don't want all children to learn at the highest level. I read Lisa Delpit's book, Other People's Children, and it's clear there are a lot of people that don't want to teach other people's children, that don't want to pay for other people's children's education. [Alfie Kohn in the April 1998 Phi Delta Kappan]

Let me give you the bottom line on vouchers. The voucher movement is a movement of greedy people who don't want to pay for other people's children. They're trying to get money into their pockets so they can pay for the private schools they're already paying for. They give my child $1,800 in a voucher, let him show up at the Moon Glow Private School that's charging $12,000 a year tuition with his $1,800 voucher, and say, "I would come to school over here, but I don't have transportation either, and all I got is this voucher." Do you think that's a solution to the educational needs of the masses of our children, Black or white? It isn't.

It's disingenuous of those people who support vouchers to say what they're trying to do is school reform. What they're trying to do is get their greedy paws on another couple bucks to reduce their private school tuition. That's what it's about. I told you I was going to tell it to you exactly the way it is.

What I want to talk about is the common treatment opportunity, that is, opportunity to learn. You can't hold children to the standards unless you give them a chance to master those standards. You have to check to see if the opportunities are there. We are a country typified by savage inequalities -- I love the title of Jonathan Kozol's work, Savage Inequalities -- and it's not the children who are savages, it's the people who savagely distribute the resources inequitably. Here's what Kozol finds out: $10,000 per year per child at New Trier Township High School. $5,000 per year per child at DuSable High School. Where you live determines what level of resources you get. That's a policy issue that is not being addressed by the standards movement. They're not even looking at the inequality. They're looking only at the output, not the input.

Content validity of achievement tests, and the standards, and the curriculum -- all three must be aligned with each other. But I see no hope that that's going to happen in this country any time soon. Too many vested interests have reason not to see that happen. Quality Teaching

Another problem is that many of the people who are talking standards have no idea of the importance of quality teaching and leadership. I was senior advisor on a video series with Dr. Barbara Sizemore [Every Child Can Succeed, Agency for Instructional Technology, Bloomington, IN] looking mainly at public schools where the children from the lowest quartile in economics are performing in the top quartile and higher in academics. How often do you think that happens? Well, I can tell you it happens a lot. We started with some of the schools that Barbara had been working with in the Hill District in Pittsburgh. The kids are all coming out of the housing projects, through the crack-infested neighborhoods, through the gang-banging neighborhoods. The Vann school and Madison school in that neighborhood are number one and number two. They have good leadership and good teaching, which accounts for their quality output. Unless we accept that good teaching is efficacious, that it can move kids in a profound way, then all the discussion about standards will have no meaning whatsoever.
elementaryschoolchildrenindiana.jpg

We also need to locate and destroy what I call "doubt production." As an academic, I'm interested in origin of doubt, especially the doubt that all children can learn. I got a chance to speak at the American Psychological Association last August on the racism in psychology. One of the things that I charged was that the association itself contained members who for years have been manufacturers of doubt. The ideology of the absence of intelligence of African people was constructed by several of the most prestigious psychologists that we know.

If you want to do something, instead of manipulating the standards, go into the programs that teach the genetic inferiority of people of color, in psychology programs, in sociology programs. Go into those places and undo what is being done. For example, there's a book by Mark Snyderman and Stanley Rothman, The IQ Controversy [1990]. In the book, over 1,000 prestigious psychologists were surveyed and over half of them agreed with the conclusion of The Bell Curve with respect to the difference between Black and white IQ. In other words, they believe that the IQ test is valid, which means that the gap in intelligence is real and it's not just a gap in test scores. Now when the elite of the profession still profess this publicly, you've got a problem of the manufacture of doubt. How are you going to fix the school if on the one end people are talking about how all children can learn, and on the other end they're talking about how Black children aren't as intelligent as white kids?

So where do we go from here? As I said, we need to connect standards with instruction so that the standards themselves are content-valid, and then we need to connect the assessment instrument to the standards. If that happens, then maybe we can make some moves forward.

I have no expectation that that's going to happen, however. Therefore, I think the standards movement is going to be abandoned and we'll be doing this again in another five years when somebody else has the problem of how to raise achievement with no money.

But if we can turn the discussion around so that it focuses on the quality of service rather than on the analysis of children and their families, then maybe, just maybe, we might be one step ahead when the topic comes up again.